Part I

As a promotional technique in the field of marketing, advertising is significant and rather generic in the endorsement of products and services. Usually, the sole purpose of this mechanism involves motivating, coaxing or exploiting particular consumer groups or the general population in order to engage in a particular anticipated action. Nonetheless, the common result is to influence consumer behavior in relation to a specific commercial provision. Due to the saturation of advertising in most markets, organizations typically encounter issues in utilizing this particular tool as a form of object for gaining competitive advantage. Based on this, firms have resorted to the utilization of various paraphernalia in order to occupy a strategic position for dominance within their respective markets. Such media comprise billboards, newspapers, television and radio, direct mail and online media. However, in the case of this research, the factor concerning advertising comprises its effectiveness. Indeed, companies may focus considerably on strategic forms of promotion but they also need to measure whether such strategies are effective enough to persuade the target consumer.

The Importance of the Study

Accordingly, the importance of this research involves concentrating on definitive attributes that could be significant in measuring the effect of advertising. Effectiveness in advertising involves the response that a market makes to a brand’s or firm’s advertising. In relation to real market settings, the market response comprises elements such as sales, market share, or the choices. Based on these responses, it is evident that advertising effectiveness is rather considerable for any business. Indeed, if a firm is incapable of understanding the impact that this promotional function imposes, then it may end up wasting important resources such as time, finances and effort. Hence, the research does not only focus on advertising as a part of the promotional mix. Instead, it focuses on the facets that can undergo incorporation in enumerating the persuasion nature of advertising for any organization.

The Objective of the Study

Concerning the significance of the research, the main objective of the study involves using scientific techniques in order to determine the impact of advertising campaigns within organizations. Over the years, research bordering on the efficacy of this promotional function has utilized theoretical research. From this, companies have been able to establish whether their campaigns impose the needed impacts. In addition to this, lack of scientific research has hindered companies from using a single model of analysis in order to address other issues involved with the promotion of their products and services. One of these problems comprises resource allocation. Most companies allocate significant internal resources to advertising campaigns on an annual basis. Due to the costs imposed by external parties, mainly the advertisers, organizations do not have a range of alternatives to choose from in order to promote their products and services.

The Plan of the Research

Carrying out a study on measuring the effectiveness of advertising is impossible without the development of an effective research plan. Generally, a research plan constitutes an outline of what a proposed study will entail. It is usually important in science since it provides an effective platform for arranging and organizing the elements of the respective study. In relation to this project, certain aspects are responsible for the development of the proposed research plan. Foremost, it will be imperative to construct the hypothesis and the goals of the project. These factors are important since they will establish the conception of the study. Regarding the research, the hypothesis will focus on the main objective of the study. After the development of the hypothesis, the development of the research goals will follow this action. These goals will comprise end statements that seek to achieve the objective of the study in the short term.

Apart from the development of the hypothesis and the project goals, the research will also require specific research questions. Research questions are as important as the two mentioned aspects since they also define the direction that the study will take in relation to measuring the effectiveness of advertising. After the construction of the hypothesis, project goals and the research questions, the study will also possess a section based on the background of the research topic as well as its significance in the field of marketing. Indeed, the reason for this is to ensure that the subject garners a considerable quantity of review from other research studies. Moreover, providing the background and the topical importance also establishes the respective subject as a potential area for study for future researchers. Moreover, the study will specify on the research method for utilization (qualitative and quantitative), the design as well as statistical analysis.

There will also be interaction of human subjects. This section will ascertain the validity of the research. This will be possible via the provision of permission from the Institutional Review Board. In addition to this, guaranteeing the validity of the study will also involve the accomplishment of certain criteria. The first criterion comprises the resources of probable participants. This specification focuses on determining the type of participants to be included within the study. For this study, this may be difficult since the research subjects may comprise organizations due to the information they may possess concerning market response. The second prerequisite concerns the recruitment of the test subjects. This criterion is variable since it is dependent on whether the research will rely on primary data or secondary data. Thirdly, there should be evidence of informed consent if secondary data is used. Lastly, the research plan will also constitute the potential benefits and risks that the research study will pose.

Part II

Literature Review (Theory and Discussion)

Generally, assessing the effectiveness of a promotional function such as advertising is considerable based on the significant amount of resources it utilizes. Since the expense gained in producing an advertisement is usually high, it is imperative for advertisers to ensure that the campaigns they are operating are effective. The same is also evident for companies. Indeed, measuring advertising effectiveness is important due to value creation. Consequently, companies need to ensure that the finances they invest into promotional tools provide value. Because of these needs, researchers have created a range of testing mechanisms. Such mechanisms comprise disparate conceptual models that illustrate the function of advertising. In addition to this, the techniques also include a variety of methods for data collection, response measures as well as different investigative approaches.

Thus, researchers have assessed the efficacy of advertising over a lengthy period. After the introduction of mass advertising over a century ago, scholars and academics have engaged in the study of advertising effectiveness. However, not much study has focused on the utilization of scientific research. According to Tellis (105), scientific research concerning this specific subject began to occur considerably within the past 50 years. This is due to the interest that the topic under observation has garnered especially in the marketing world. However, the contention and the development of literature based on advertising effectiveness lies on the different forms researchers have assumed in measuring efficacy. On one hand, companies have asserted certain variables as significant for enumerating effectiveness in advertising. Indeed, Tellis, Chandy and Thaivanich (35) assert that measuring advertising efficacy is only possible via the testing of the main parameters, which comprise message variables, budgeting decisions, and source factors and media strategies.

Adding on to the parameters of scientific research, Tellis and Franses (219) utilize advertising responses as important tools for measuring advertising effectiveness. In this respect, understanding the retort that the participants will generate after advertisements provides an efficient way of determining whether the commercial is effective or ineffective. For instance, incorporating a test that assesses the physiological processes of a consumer after showing the advertisement may provide an opportunity for assessing the effectiveness. A test such as concept testing is significant. This is because it employs focus groups. Moreover, the test explores the reactions of customers to advertisements and campaigns and considers them for analysis (Tellis and Franses 222). However, conducting such a test is difficult. This is due to the different forms of media used to promote certain products or services to the target groups.

On the contrary, Wells seems to differ from the factors provided previously. Accordingly, the factors that influence advertising have a certain impact on the resulting success of the promotional campaign. Because of this, the criteria that will enable measurement of advertising effectiveness comprise particular facets. They include the medium, the copy of the advertisement, and the target audience (Kuse 311). Furthermore, possible criteria for ensuring proper enumeration involve level of sales regarding the promoted products or services, and the reception of the advertising from the customers (Kuse 314). Nevertheless, it is imperative to merge several criteria. This is because it may be impossible to utilize every specification provided irrespective of the effect it may impose on the respective focal area. Specifically, if a firm operates a number of advertising campaigns within a range of media simultaneously, then it may be quite complex and difficult to incorporate all the mentioned criteria and ascribe the calculated effects to a particular campaign.

Nevertheless, because of the rapid development of the Internet, organizations have taken advantage of probable outlets of advertising which are cheaper and far more convenient than the conventional ones. Therefore, it may be impossible to determine the reactions that consumers have towards commercials especially in relation to conventional forms of advertising. As an outcome, companies and researchers may need to concentrate on contemporary forces responsible for altering conventional advertising. By having information regarding these influences, organizations and interest parties will understand the issues that may hinder them from determining the effectiveness of advertising. Moreover, accessibility to such data can assist these respective stakeholders in ensuring proper accountability for this particular marketing function. Indeed, the forces modifying advertising comprise fragmentation, social media and digitization (Daye 1).

Having these particular forces in mind, it is evident that a certain advertisement may be able to achieve desired results in one medium and a considerably different outcome in another. For instance, at one point, it was enough to enumerate the effectiveness of a commercial in copy testing and determine whether there was evidence of successful promotion or not. However, due to the effect of the mentioned forces, the same advertisement will exude different performances when delivered via linear televisions and online videos or through tablets or mobile phones (Daye 1). In addition to these dissimilar results, social media will affect the effectiveness of the advertisement due to its interactive effects, which may cause differences across individuals.  

Part III


In conclusion, research on the measurement of advertising effectiveness raises a number of questions especially within marketing. Based on the literature, determining the effectiveness of commercials seems to be rather complicated. Due to the arguments raised by different scholars, measuring such a quality is difficult due to the changing nature of contemporary media platforms. In addition to this, it is difficult to utilize definite criteria over others since all of them actually impose an effect in determining whether a certain commercial is effective. For instance, forces such as fragmentation, social media and digitization will influence different results among consumers when enumerating the efficacy of this particular promotional function.


Based on the contents of the review, it is evident that enumerating effectiveness in advertising campaigns requires an extensive collection of accessible data. This is because of the modifications that the function has undergone ever since its inception. Indeed, to ensure that the research has minimal fallibility, it will be imperative to utilize different advertising techniques in order to study the efficacy. For example, print ads such as those evident in newspapers, internet commercials as well as television and radio commercials may be imperative in assessing different reactions among a specific target group. In general, the study is considerably informative since it provides significant data concerning the effects of advertising and provides further platform for related studies.

Works Cited:

Daye, Derrick. “Measuring Advertising Effectiveness.” Branding Strategy Insider. 15 May 2012. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <>.

Kuse, Allan R. “The Measurement of Advertising Effectiveness.” Measuring Advertising Effectiveness. Ed. William D. Wells. New York: Psychology Press, 2009. 301-320. Print.

Tellis, Gerard J. Effective Advertising: How, When and Why Advertising Works. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2004. Print.

Tellis, Gerard J., and Philip Hans Franses. “Optimal Data Interval for Advertising Response Models.” Marketing Science 25.3 (2006): 217-229. Print.

Tellis, Gerard J., Rajesh Chandy and Pattana Thaivanich. “Decomposing the Effects of Direct Advertising: Which Brand Works, When, Where, and How Long?” Journal of Marketing Research 37.1 (2000): 32-46. Print.

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