Address of Benedict XVI. (2008, September). Apostolistic Journey of His Holiness Benedict XVI to France on the Occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Lourdes. Meeting with Representatives from the World of the Culture. 7. The objective of this letter was to discuss the roots of the European culture and the origins of western theology. Theological and cultural divides existed between the ancient and modern views of Christianity. In order to close that gap, biblical expositions were essential. These would aid in the deeper understanding of the scriptures. The exegesis of particular books like the Psalms, guided the monks’ cultures in their quest to seek God. Western monasticism created this gap, and it is by wholly understanding the scripture that there can be synchronization of culture and theology. Europe’s culture and western origins can only be considered to be aligned to God’s will if the people reform and listen to His word.
Birzer, B. J. (2007). Sanctifying the world: The Augustinian life and mind of Christopher Dawson. Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press. The main focus of the book is consecrating the world from its secular nature. By creating intensive religious studies in school curriculums, this can be made possible. Christian culture studies gave priority to Christian history, thoughts philosophies and theological perspectives. From them, there would be prospects of reforms within the society leading to sanctification of the world.
Burtchaell, J. (1991) The Decline and Fall of the Christian College. It explicitly explains how and why Christian colleges are failing in their objectives. Beliefs of these colleges need to be spoken out and publicly declared. Active communism should be seen in their organizational culture and structure. In doing so, the Christian colleges will be highly relevant than they previously were in the society.
Condorcet, M. (1794).Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind: The Tenth Stage. While trying to explain the development of the human brain and its faculties, three fundamental questions are asked. An example of a question is, ‘is the human race trying to better itself, either by discoveries in the sciences and the arts; or by progression in the principles of conduct and practical morality; or by improvement which may result from a perfection of the heightened intellect in their use of the natural constitution of man?’ This questions the need for religion because the human mind develops intuitively over time and thus the need for beliefs is irrelevant.
Dawson, C. (2009). Understanding Europe. Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press. This publication gives a deep insight on the historical development of Europe and the ideals that influenced it to become what it is as a continent. Understanding of Europe is thus based on the development of the Christian culture. However, the Christian culture is divided into different phases which are, Pre-Christian, Christian and post-Christian times. The pre-Christian phase was shown by the separation of Greeks from the rest of the Asiatic world as they followed their Hellenic culture. The Christian phase was that of collaboration between the Romans and Mediterranean people. Therefore, the essence of spirituality is embraced when there is no prosperity and vice versa.
Demant, V. A. (1947). Our culture: its Christian roots and present crisis. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. In this book, it is evident that acceptance of western civilization is the main reason for the erosion of religious culture. The Christian way of life has deteriorated because of secularism being embraced by the society. As highlighted, the process is gradual, but the consequences are real. For instance, the continued quest for quantitative education in the society has led to more secularized civilization. It is this continuous pursuit of knowledge that leads to the sidelining of religion. Another factor that led to this separation is the concentration on differentiating between Catholics and Protestants instead of focusing based on religion. This crisis can only be resolved through radical conversion and spiritual transformation. It is by seriously considering these methods of self-discovery that humanity shall not self-destruct.
Jaeger, W., & Highet, G. (1939). Paideia: The ideals of Greek culture. New York: Oxford University Press. The book focuses on the significance of education in the Greek culture and the important role it played. The Greek believed that education was very fundamental in the development of individuals. This is seen both socially and intellectually. Education in the Greek society was made up of both written and unwritten rules and, therefore, it formed the basis of their sociological perspectives. Their paiedia gives a peculiar insight of their Hellenocentric history, which was so deeply rooted in its people that it could not be eroded over time. It involved educating a man to suit his intended human nature, which is both real and genuine. This focused on the intellectual principle of humanisms. Concentration of these ideals was because of the emphasis placed on the life of the community.
Macintyre, A (n.d.). Catholic Universities Dangers, Hopes, Choices. Here, the role of catholic universities and how they influence the choices the students make is discussed. The institutions play a major role in determining whether the student will reject or uphold their catholic practices.
Newman, J. “Professors and Tutors” from “The Rise and Progress of Universities” in Historical Sketches Vol. III. Integrity is the virtue that helps safeguard universities from the evils of society and itself. These universities are made up of professors and educators that influence the student culture. It is seen as a state of mind and perpetuates throughout ones life. Existence of a university based on integrity yet it is independent to the church, is difficult. Philosophy alone cannot fully quench the thirst for knowledge. It needs the three vital principles of Christianity. These faith, chastity and love influence the virtue of integrity.
Newman, J. (1999). The Idea of a University. New Haven: Yale University Press. Here, the idea of a university is shown through the example of a man. It builds up the elements that make a man the person he is thanks to the inherent qualities in them. Drawing attention to the relevance of religion as there are some qualities that cannot be obtained from knowledge only. It is used to catapult the idea of religion in philosophy by suppressing qualities like pride and replacing them with humility. These qualities make a man a gentleman regardless of his philosophical stand.
Newman, J. (1841). The Tamworth Reading Room. The main point in this section of the book is that of secularism. It becomes completely difficult to embrace personal religion with overindulgence in secular ways. It questions the role of religion in a secular world and the role that the religion plays.
Newman, J. (n.d.). Discipline of Mind. In this address, the concept of a gentleman and its development over the years, is explained. Newman expounds that in order to possess the candor of a gentleman, the obligations are to learn and not just to be taught. This requires a certain level of intellect. The mind has to be conformed to meet certain criteria expected of them. As a gentleman, there is the need to reflect of ones moral conduct and align it to the necessary code of conduct. This can be achieved by embracing Christianity.
Pope Benedict XVI (2008). Address to La Sapienza University: I have not come to impose the faith. Two crucial questions are asked and answered in this address. What is the mission of the papacy and what is the nature and mission of the university? By answering these questions, it is seen that without confusion, Christianity and philosophy are interrelated. For that reason, faith cannot be imposed, but it is upon ones free will to accept it.
Ratzinger, C. (n.d.) Europe‘s Crisis of Culture. The crisis of culture in Europe is caused by modernism, which advocates for secularism. Depleting the moral energy has brought about this effect. There is less and less emphasis placed on religion, and it has slowly been pushed away from curriculums. It is seen by the wake of a form of rationality that Europe lives as a Godless society. Even in the constitutions in the European countries there is no acknowledgement of a higher Deity instead it has become a culture of rights.
Raymond, B. (1933). Humanist Manifesto I. This document has sixteen affirmations to the manifesto and highlights the declarations of cultural evolution and religious beliefs. It was written to embody a new developing perspective that is not declaration of a creed. The philosophical view is mainly based on modernism. Humanism is seen to account for the existence and development of man.
Thomas. (1967). Suma contra Gentiles. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. This book was written with the quest of showing the relationship between faith and knowledge (education). It seeks to defend the stand of Christian faith with the use of knowledge obtained. The truth of reason is related to the truth of Christian faith and the assent of faith should not be seen as foolishness. The book is mostly directed to the gentiles who attempted to understand Christianity through philosophical knowledge.
University of Regensberg (2006, September). Faith, Reason and the University: Memories and Reflections “Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization” 9. This was a speech delivered by the pope and was made to demystify the notion of separating Christian faith from the reasoning of the Greek philosophers during the Hellenistic ages. It was during these times that there was a lot of questioning of the basis of religion. The papal address was therefore keen in showing how knowledge is used to question the existence of God. Severally throughout the speech, there are relations of biblical context and philosophical reasoning seen through the idea of intellectualism. For anything that would claim to be scientific would have to be measured against mathematical and empirical methods. However, this technique lacks to explain fully the development of psychological and sociological rules. Therefore the both Christian faith and some Greek philosophies complement each other and are not entirely separate entities.
Address of Benedict XVI. (2008, September). Apostolistic Journey of His Holiness Benedict XVI to France on the Occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Lourdes. Meeting with Representatives from the World of the Culture. 7.
Birzer, B. J. (2007). Sanctifying the world: The Augustinian life and mind of Christopher Dawson. Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press.
Burtchaell, J. (1991)The Decline and Fall of the Christian College.
Condorcet, M. (1794). Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind: The Tenth Stage.
Dawson, C. (2009). Understanding Europe. Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press.
Demant, V. A. (1947). Our culture: its Christian roots and present crisis. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Jaeger, W., & Highet, G. (1939). Paideia: The ideals of Greek culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Macintyre, A. (n.d.). Catholic Universities Dangers, Hopes, Choices.
Newman, J. (n.d.). “Professors and Tutors” from “The Rise and Progress of Universities” in Historical Sketches Vol. III.
Newman, J. (1999). The Idea of a University. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Newman, J. (1841). The Tamworth Reading Room.
Newman, J. (n.d.). Discipline of Mind.
Ratzinger, C. (n.d.) Europe‘s Crisis of Culture.
Raymond, B. (1933). Humanist Manifesto I.
Thomas. (1967). Suma contra Gentiles. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos.
University of Regensberg (2006, September). Faith, Reason and the University: Memories and Reflections “Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization” 9.
Pope Benedict XVI (2008). Address to La Sapienza University: I have not come to impose the faith.