In their articleLarry, Jaclyn and Zom focused on Max Weber’s literature on bureaucracy. They have acknowledged that Max Weber is among the most renowned authors, whose literatures have formed the foundation of modern sociology (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 5). They further states that his impact can still be felt across many fields such as economics, politics and religion. Larry, Jaclyn and Zom make several arguments in their article. They state that there are six major characteristics of bureaucracy. They include professionalism, promotion based on achievement, written documentation, specialization in division of labor, management by rules and the principle of hierarchy (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 13).

In regards to professionalism, the authors claim that it is to be determined by valuation of the individual worker’s ability and the responsibility assigned to him or her. Furthermore, they states that it should also be used to determine seniority, retirement, fixed salary, promotion and tenure (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 12). Promotion based on achievement meant that a merit and patronage system is to be used for determining tenure and financial incentives. In addition, the authors argue that all bureaucratic rules, decisions and actions have to be recorded in writing (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 10). These records would be used for future reference and ensure continuation of the organization’s procedures and policies.

They also noted that specialization of labor would increase productivity, distribution and employee involvement. According to the authors, management by rules would involve defining codes of conduct that govern all employees within the society (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 7). They also point out that these codes of conduct must be understood and adhered to by all managerial structures without any biasness. Finally, in regards to principle of hierarchy, the authors argue that an institution should have a well-designed managerial structure. According to them, this would ensure efficient and effect vertical and horizontal communication within the organization (Larry, Jaclyn and Zom, 8).

The authors have issued criticism regarding Weber’s principles. Firstly, they state that removal of monetary job incentives could reduce productivity and morale. Secondly, they have questioned whether bureaucratic inefficiencies occur due to inadequacy or absence of incentives. Thirdly, the authors have stated that fixed-salaries are not always reflected on employee’s work ethic. According to the authors, trained experts, privileged strata and education are the perspective rules of rank order that guarantees social position. Another point worth mentioning from their article is that the authors believe that superior authority appoints pure bureaucratic officials. Furthermore, they state that in public bureaucracies, public positions are normally held for life by officials. Finally, the authors believe that promotion within the hierarchical order is based on seniority and expert examinations.

Apart from indicating evidences for Weber’s principles of bureaucracy, the authors have failed to provide articles that support their counterarguments. They have simply expressed their personal opinions regarding the topic. This makes their article unconvincing. In an academic literature, especially in book or article reviews, it is very important for writers to provide supportive evidenced to back their arguments. Therefore, this article lacks cohesiveness because there are no literature reviews to back the authors’ criticisms. Finally, the authors were very bias in their report. The authors only focused on how bureaucracy can be applied positively in an organization without mentioning any limitation associated with its application.


Larry, Jaclyn and Zom. Bureaucracy: Max Weber. . n.p., n.d..

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