Alder argues that moral entrepreneurs, individuals and institutions, manufacture public morality in three stages. They include creating awareness, seeking media attraction and sponsor support, and finally and fostering moral panic. Alder has identified several ways through which claim makers can attract the media. He further argues that four factors, namely money, race and ethnicity, gender and age, protect or impose labels on people allied to certain groups. In my opinion, the strategies provided by the author should be the last available alternatives. Better tactics such as press conferences and other peaceful strategies should be used before adopting the proposed options. However, I agree with him that differential social power enables some people to sway decision makers to disfavor or favor governing laws.
THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF DRUG SCARES
Reinarman has identified seven elements that can be used to enhance and strengthen the effectiveness of drug scares and laws. They include telling the truth regarding effects of substance abuse, using a drug as a scapegoat for a variety of problems, media magnification, professional interest groups, politico-moral entrepreneurs and historical context of conflict.
I agree with him that self-control by drug abusers is very vital for the success of the strategies named above. However, the author has failed to indicate the roles to be played by law enforcers in this process.
BLOWING SMOKE: STATUS POLITICS & THE SMOKING BAN
Toggle and Holmes argue that moral crusaders should seek support of people from upper social classes in the society. They state that these people have the power to institute coercive and assimilative drug reforms. I agree with the authors that politicians and governments must provide support to drug crusaders. This is because they have the power to institute laws, arrest, and prosecute offenders.
FAILURE TO LAUNCH
Jenkins states that some social issues fail to initiate the third phase of manufacturing public morality. He argues that lack of self-feeding media frenzy is attributed to shortcomings of law enforcement agencies. In my opinion, all stakeholders, especially law enforcers, have a role to play in ending outlawed practices. Once crusaders and politico-moral entrepreneurs have instituted laws, it is the duty of the police, judges, persecutors and other agents to ensure that the new rules are adhered to by the public.