Critical Review of an Article 

Task 1: Critical Review of an Article 

1. Title of the Research Article Selected 

Oliver, C.  & Singal, N. (2017) Migration, disability and education: reflections from a special school in the east of England, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 38:8, 1217-1229, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1273757

2. Conceptual Approach identified in the research article (50 words max)  

The conceptual approach selected by the authors in my chosen article is a transnationalism / international migration perspective. It offers the chance to consider the experience of immigrant learners, staff, and parents as they try to integrate into their current context. It also makes it possible to understand immigrants’ perspective.  

3. Thesis statement – outline the main argument from the research article (100 words max) 

A case study provides the chance to examine a special school in England and to specifically examine the perspectives of new immigrants and staff on their encounters. It examines how the interactions of immigrant families with schools were impacted both by their past migration patterns and present processes of integration. The researchers focus on the topic after learning that research of migrant pupils in schools have not paid adequate attention to those with special educational requirements and/ or disabilities. Knowing the challenges presents a suitable chance to enact mitigating measures that would ensure that migrants fit easily in the UK school environment.    

4. Define the meaning of the term ‘education for social change’. Demonstrate two or more instances from the article where education is presented as a vehicle for social change. (250 words max). 

  Education offers knowledge, skills and training and incorporates new ideas, attitudes, and thoughts among learners. Most of the traditional unfounded values and beliefs, which avert advancement, via education can be transformed in the favour of improved ideas. Overall, education offers the chance to change a society in many ways. For instance, education enable individuals to make proper moral decision, and makes it possible to create better comprehension of various issues. Besides, education serves as an avenue for social change because it enable one to lead a healthy lifestyle, and also play fundamental roles in averting crime. Hence, education acts as a crucial agent for social change. It is possible to identify various instances in the article where education is presented as a vehicle for social change. The introductory section that sets the pace and tone for the article shows how refugees and migrants move into the UK, some of which hope to get better education opportunities. Those who are lucky enough to secure administration get a chance to transform their lives, become independent, and overcome the stigma associated with being an immigrant. Oliver and Singal (2017, p. 1224) acknowledge that the number of children with special educational needs and/or disabilities (SEN/D) joining mainstream schools has increases exponentially over the years. Besides, a considerable number of children joining special schools although the increase has not been impressive over the recent past. The increased admissions reaffirms that education is a vehicle for social change because these children, their parents, and communities believe that they improve socially, through education.  

5. Define the meanings of the term ‘inclusive pedagogy’ Identify two or more instances of inclusive pedagogy in a global context.  (250 words max). 

Primarily, inclusive pedagogy is a learner-cantered technique to teaching that faculty members deploy to create an enabling, welcoming, and inclusive environment to all the learners with dissimilar backgrounds, learning methods, and cognitive and physical abilities in the classroom. Instructors in the UK and all over the globe are embracing inclusive pedagogy because it offers the chance to foster diversity to form dynamic, inclusive, and relevant individuals and group learning encounters (Berg 2018). Moreover, tutors embrace inclusive pedagogy because it provides an opportunity to build an environment that encourages each learner to attain high academic performance, and advance their path to academic excellence (Bourn 2021, p. 70; Sanger 2020, p. 24). Various instances in the article depict inclusive pedagogy. The idea of engaging immigrants with native learners is a form of inclusive pedagogy because learners from different backgrounds meet in class with the common goal of attaining education. Learners bring with them their ideas, perceptions, and experiences based on their cultures and customs. Besides, Oliver and Singal (2017, p. 1225) inform how institutions offering special education are increasingly encouraging collaboration with parents. Building good relationships with parents is an integral aspect of inclusive pedagogy that deserves attention from tutors and parents alike. Globally, learning institutions are increasingly admitting learners from various backgrounds and characteristics. Learners intermingle without considering their sex, religion, race, or religion. Another illustration is that researchers are coming up with literature that support this type of learning. For example, Florian (2015, p. 9) and Pratt and Florian (2015, p. 92) argue that inclusive learning fosters social networking, improve shared learning opportunities, and offer an opportunity to make new friends.    

6. Supporting argumentation – What evidence is used in the research article that could be used to support arguments you could present in the policy brief?  (250 words max).  

Oliver and Singal (2017) use evidence that could be adequately be presented in the policy brief. In addition, the authors support their argument with the scholarly works of other equally competent writers, an approach that make their argument more convincing and credible. Evidence by Oliver and Singal (2017, p. 1226) suggest that whereas there is need to facilitate how children with SEN/D get education, it is imperative to consider some of the challenges that could derail the process. According to Oliver and Singal (2017, p. 1226), the need to embrace a new language is a real problem for many learners entering schools in the UK. Specifically, Oliver and Singal (2017, p. 1226) writes that “Language variations could complicate settling in and admission, particularly since for some of the learners at the learning facility, English acquisition tends to be slower due to their disabilities. Stakeholders pay much attention to this area to ensure that a child is not in a special school merely because of their inability to use English. The other evidence that could be included in the policy brief is that the parents of migrant families face considerable challenges adjusting to the new environment and be able to cater for the needs of their children (Oliver & Singal 2017, p. 1228). Vertovec (2006) also shares the same sentiments that many immigrant families encounter restrictions and marginalization that inhibit their effort to integrate into the new society and community.

7. Concluding Statements and Further Implications for education policy and practice. (250 words max). 

How do you think that the research article contributes to debates on pedagogy for inclusion and social change? How do these debates relate to the broader context of globalisation?  

The argument in the article is of significant importance in advocating for inclusive learning and emphasizing that education is a fundamental tool for social change. A chief lesson from the article which may impact on education policy is that it emphasises the need to accept migrants and children with special needs and deserving equal learning opportunities as others. Policy developers, through the findings in the article, are likely to create regulations that foster inclusive learning, while reiterating that the approach offers the chance for increased enlightenment (Edwards 2015; IOM 2008, p. 55). The debates relate to the broader context of globalisation where people are increasingly moving from one place or region to the other in quest for education.  


Berg, M 2018, ‘Super-diversity, austerity, and the production of precarity: Latin Americans in London’, Critical Social Policy,

Bourn, D 2021, ‘Pedagogy of hope: Global learning and the future of education’, International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 65–78.

Edwards, V 2015, Inclusive education for second language learners: The case of Roma children in Croatia. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Florian, L 2015, ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’ Scottish Educational Review, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 5-14.

IOM 2008, Human rights of migrant, International Organization for Migration, London.

Oliver, C, & Singal, N 2015, ‘Migration, disability and education: Reflections from a special school in the east of England’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1217-1229.

Pratt, J, & Florian, L 2015, ‘Inclusive pedagogy: From learning to action. Supporting each individual in the context of ‘everybody’, Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 49, pp. 89-96.

Sanger, C 2020, Inclusive pedagogy and universal design approaches for diverse learning environments, In Sanger, C, & Gleason, N 2020, Diversity and inclusion in global higher education, Yale-NUS Press, Singapore.

Vertovec, S 2006, The emergence of super-diversity in Britain. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Task 2  

Policy Brief Template 

  1. Title – Critical and Global Perspectives on Education Module
  2. Executive Summary/ Overview

There is need to overcome the obstacles to effective engagement in educational processes and cultural dislocation because evidence suggest that such factors impend learning practices, especially for minority groups. There is need to alter the current policy because numerous obstacles still deter effective indulgence in educational processes, especially when one belongs to a less dominant group. Besides, the change is necessary because aligning people based on their culture obstruct effective engagement and intermingling.  Hence, the most suitable remedies would be to make changes to existing policies, sensitising people about the change, and offering material and emotional support to less fortunate families and learners.

3. Outline Concepts and Interpretations of globalization Relevant to Education (300 words) 

The applicable conceptual approach for this analysis is transnational migration refers to the act of moving and settling across global borders such that individuals get the opportunity to create or uphold numerous networks of connection to their nation of origin while also making entry into another nation. Transnational migration could also refer to a scenario where a person or a population constantly moves across two or more nations and acquires a new cultural identity that surpasses a single geopolitical sphere (Rizzini & Bush 2002, p. 372). With increasing globalisation, more people are engaging in transnational migration with different objectives.

            Globalisation has made transnational migration for educational purposes much easier, thanks to various factors. Some of the factors that hastens transnational migration in a globalised world include but not limited to improved transport networks, enhanced spread of information via mass media, and increased communications. The idea of liberalism has played fundamental functions in boosting transnational migration because people are increasingly acknowledging their freedom to move without obstruction so long as they meet needed requirements (Reimers 2020, p. 33). Liberalism that emphasises on consent of the governed and liberty has encouraged how people move from one place to the other, and has impacted on transnational migration.

Various other ideas propel the notion of transnational migration when perceived from a global perspective. Postmodernism and Marxism are some of the theoretical concepts that offer more insight into how transnational migration happens. Concerning postmodernism, many believe that they act in modern way when they shift from one place to the other, and it is the reason why various forms of transportation exist, including those that can take one far and wide (Reimers 2020, 60). Marxism, on the other hand, contributes towards the idea of transnational migration because proponents believe that in a society where social hierarchy does not really matter, people have the freedom to explore what they feel their hearts desire.

4. Literature Review that Analyses a Pressing Problem in Education (700 words)

Apparently, various factors hinder meaningful engagement in educational practices as well as contribute to cultural dislocation. Concrete evidence reveal that one’s migration status could determine how they fit into a new place or educational environment. Tikly (2017) reports that it appears that migration does not have significant impact on the possibilities of finishing seven to eight years of schooling, but decreases the chances of achieving more years that this and magnifies the likelihood of attaining lesser years of schooling than this. Based on this argument, it is evident that migration is a key factor to consider with regard to its effects on education. Often, migrant children with disability encounter considerable challenges fitting into the classroom context, even when they attend a school for learners with special needs. Besides, grouping learners based on their cultures could influence resource distribution, with the key focus being on groups that either contain students from a particular race or religion while disregarding the other.  

It is imperative to ensure that every learner in the UK achieves equal education regardless of their migration status and cultural affiliation considering the rate at which the obstacles raise concern among key stakeholders. The fact is that the number of migrants into the UK, especially from Latin America is increasing. The article by McIlwaine and Bunge (2015) reveals that about 250,000 Latin Americans reside in the UK, and about 145,000 are based in London. Thus, continuing to disregard learners from this community simply because of their migration status or have particular disabilities, and going ahead to locate them in specific areas may create a backlash that could trigger revolts and criticisms. The ones suffer more are migrants parents and their children, and migrant teachers who may have to take bolder measures to fit into the UK context.

Lack of effective policies on how to integrate migrant learners and their families in the UK school system, especially for those with special needs could be attributed as the primary cause of the obstacles to meaningful engagement in educational processes and cultural alienation. So far, the UK law on immigration allows citizens from Swiss, EEA, and EU to enter the UK without a visa, but all other migrants for other reasons must get clearance from relevant authorities ( 2022 c). One is also welcome to apply to live in the UK if for other reasons they have difficulty living in their country. However, many migrants are unable to meet the requirements which call for a review of the current policies to consider those who truly need to relocate but cannot avail some of the needed documents. The change would go a long way into ensuring that migrants, especially those with special needs get the chance to learn without limiting their access to needed resources.

Presently, the UK government acknowledges that education is a fundamental right of every child and a vital opportunity and allows all registered migrant children to attend school on a state-funded initiative, but still considerable loopholes exist that deter some migrants from securing the chance that they need so much. In the UK, regardless of migration status, all children has the right of reach to education (UNICEF n.a.). Hence, local and federal authorities have the legal obligation to ensure the provision is available for all children, including those who have the ability and any special educational needs. Laws such as Children and Families Act 2014 and the Immigration Act 2016 facilitate how migrant leaners secure opportunities in school (UNICEF n.a.). However, there seems to be some laxity in implementation because out of the 11,970 migrant children in the UK, more than 1500 are not into formal learning, primary due to their migration station and their need for special care (UNICEF a, 2022). Thus, making considerable transformations to existing policies would improve admission of migrant children, including those who require special care because of their disability.

It is also possible to identify educational practices that co tribute towards the problem. A factor that requires considerable attention is the lack of school-based policies that encourage admission of migrants, including those with special needs. Consequently, schools continue to believe in admitting natives, a practice that deters inclusive pedagogy. Thus, school leaders should liaise with staff to formulate regulations that determine how the facility incorporates immigrants regardless of the disability status and race.

5. Critique of Current Approaches and inadequacy of current global policies in tackling the issue of inclusive education (500 words) 

Presently as noted in the previous section, the UK relies on various legislations as a way of combating the problems that migrant leaners face in the UK. Based on the Immigration Act 2016 people are not inhibited from learning if they lack immigration status ( 2022). Nonetheless, an individual’s immigration status could determine the kind of education that they can access and the type of funding one receives. If one does not have immigration status or seek asylum, they may also have needed immigration bail documents ( 2022 b). However, the policy does not touch much into what happens to immigrant children and families that enter the UK without documentation and how such minors will secure education ( 2022 a). Besides, it barely addresses how migrant learners with disabilities may be accorded special attention and motivation to fit in more easily and effectively. Such weaknesses require considerable attention to salvage the problem that could have far-reaching implications if mitigation delays.

The current approach might be failing due to various factors revolving around policy formation and implementation. Legislators could be blamed for the fault because they do not seem to review all aspects as much as abled persons contribute towards the formation of the regulation. It is upon the developers of the policy to ensure that they cover all possibilities as a way of preventing scenarios where many migrant children fail to go to school or face considerable constraints participating meaningfully in educational practices due to their migration status or disability (Reimers 2020, 71). Implementers (the executive) is also to blame because some officers do not follow up to ensure that all children are in school regardless of whether they are migrants or not (Wall 2019, p. 7). A notable failure on the part of the executive is that some schools, particularly in areas that have high number of migrant learners, lack vital amenities, which make it difficult to achieve quality education or at least similar to that of other children. Besides, the officers fail to equip special schools with the needed resources, especially in places that recruit large numbers of migrant children, thereby contributing to the weaknesses in current regulatory frameworks. Thus, increased oversight would offer a better opportunity to mitigate the problem.  

Whereas intersectionality impact on people in many positive ways, existing policies still exclude migrant children and their families as well as migrant teachers in many ways. The law ought to give them confidence and encouragement that they will receive the needed protection and fundamental services. The structure needs to follow the directive embedded in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which postulates that education is a critical tool for the safeguarding of human dignity (UNESCO n.a. a). The Declaration acknowledges that for refugees, getting an education is the most suitable way to transform into full citizens of their host nations. Borrowing a leaf from such international guidelines would help to eradicate instances where a considerable number of migrants are out of school due to weaknesses in existing policies. Fortunately, there is still time to enact relevant changes and achieve the targeted aspirations.

6. Outline Different Stakeholder Perspectives on this Problem in Education: You may refer to The Conceptual Approach You Previously selected (see question 3). (300 words)

Various stakeholders in education have their perspectives regarding the problem. For migrant parents and their children, they hope that the government would support their relocation, bearing in mind that what pushes them out of their country is a serious matter that requires much address (Gilsenan & Lee 2021, p. 228; Kraler et al. 2011, p. 51). Parents and children feel that it would be better if existing regulations would offer them the opportunity to integrate into the UK society with minimum challenge, which include creating awareness on the need to embrace refugees or migrants who enter the region due to other reasons. The group is the most affected by the problem and would be relieved if the needed improvement based on its perspective happens.

The other group of stakeholders that have their perspective on this matter are learning institutions in the UK. School leaders and staff feel that clear guidelines need to be in place to determine how migrant learners secure positions in mainstream schools while those with special needs get chances in recommended stations where they can get the help that they really need (Manzoni & Rolfe 2019, p. 45). Nonetheless, players in various schools may continue disregarding migrant learners, particularly those with disabilities. However, school administrators believe that it would be easier to engage every one as well as their parents with adequate guidance and support throughout the course.

The government is also a key stakeholder whose perspective could be influential in dealing with the problem. The government believes that having clear guidelines to regulate transnational migration would provide a vivid view of how many migrants are entering the UK, and how many require special care because of their disability status (UNESCO n.a.; UNHCR 2019). However, it would only be possible to come up with more directive policies on transnational migration by reviewing current directives and identifying areas that require considerable adjustment.

7. Outline how your chosen conceptual approach helps us understand this problem better (500 words) 

The applicable conceptual approach in this case is transnational migration, which entails moving across international borders while maintaining numerous networks or attachment with the country of origin. For instance, a person who moves into the UK and then returns to their home country after considerable duration of stay may be termed as practicing transnational migration (Upegui-Hernandez 2012). This is opposed to a scenario where a person relocates to another nation on permanent basis and does not have plans for returning to their home country. Moreover, the concept could also apply to a larger population or group that moves to another place but then returns to their original place. Often, people practice transnational migration when seeking refuge for a while in foreign nations due to conflicts back at home, when engaging in work-related duties for a designated period. The conceptual approach is suitable for this study because it offers the chance to examine how migration affects children and their parents, especially when the household has to get into the UK and return to their country or move to another nation. Therefore, using transnational migration as the primary conceptual approach offers a better chance to understand the problem and be able to propose effective remedies.

Using transnational migration presents the chance examine key concerns in education more effectively and appropriately. For instance, the framework makes it possible to understand that migration is a key concern affecting education, and lack of adequate concern in this area could deter a significant number of children from learning and brightening their future (Levitt 2004). It becomes easier to understand how factors such as hardships in integration and hardships in mastering additional languages impede learning exercises. Hamers and Blanc (2000, p. 43) and Moya (2020) acknowledge that being able to acquire new language especially during teenage age may be problematic, an impediment that could deter learning in new or unfamiliar contexts. The concept will further help to understand how the need to learn English, which is the primary mode of communication in many learning institutions in the UK (Department of Education 2020) impact on migrants from Latin America where English is not as dominant. Hence, the conceptual approach serves as a vital tool for dealing with the problem more effectively.

Examining the issue using the transnational migration approach has various benefits that make it a suitable model. A key benefit of this model is that it allows a reviewer or examiner to look at the matter from a greater perspective, thus being able to get a clearer view of the problem. For instance, a reviewer can use the model to determine how migration influences children and their parents in the new environment, as well as look at how settlers encounter challenges mastering new languages and lifestyle. However, it is still possible to embrace better approaches of gaining additional benefits from applying the model by acquiring more information from various sources that give helpful tips on how the framework works.

8. Policy recommendations (600 words) 

Various adjustments need to happen to the existing policies while considering the existing weaknesses. The teams responsible for drafting migration laws as well as educational policies need to review current structures and identify how they omit certain key elements. Specifically, the regulations should not only emphasize education as a key right for every child, but also give clear guidelines to schools urging them to admit all children (Turcatti & Vargas-Silva 2021). However, the law should prioritize children and families that have gotten clearance from relevant authorities to avoid situations where unlawful migrants find it easier to enter and settle in the UK because such loopholes could provoke security threats (LeVine 2010, p. 6). In addition, the laws should be clear about the support children with disabilities need to get, including the financial aid that would see them through the course if their parents or guardians are unable to pay the needed fees. However, the formation process would be in vain if those who are charged with the duty of implementation do not work hard enough. Hence, the policies should put more emphasis on making follow-ups to ensure that every stakeholder acts in accordance with the outlined provisions. Otherwise, failing to enact the changes may derail the attempts to deal with problem.

Moreover, there is need to formulate policies that disregard cultural dislocation because this a critical factor that contributes towards lack of proper access to education for many migrant children. The refined policies should encourage cultural integration and diversity and stress on the benefits of being inclusive (McCarthy 2020, p. 65). Nonetheless, failing to address the matter by not condemning cultural dislocation may create a scenario where learners from particular cultural groups enjoy more resources and receive quality learning while their counterparts in zoned areas receive better attention and improved services that would boost their performance.

However, there is need to consider an alternative approach because the problem may require additional input to mitigate the issue as effectively as possible. A suitable alternative in this instance would be to increase sensitisation about current and refined laws to reduce scenarios where learning institutions do not accept immigrants (Reliefweb 2021; Robertson et al. n.a.). Moreover, the awareness program should target the parents of migrant children to inform them that their children have the right and are protected by law to secure education regardless of their migration and disability status (Willems & Vernimmen 2017). A suitable approach would be to roll out the enlightenment process at different levels and using various avenues to reach out to a larger audience and to ensure that as many people as possible know how the regulations work, and their roles in protecting vulnerable groups such as migrants, including children with disabilities and special needs.

Considering certain specific measures would provide a suitable chance to achieve the targeted goals during the implementation process. A vital consideration would be to create an oversight team that ensures that the groups charged with the formation and implementation processes conduct their duties appropriately and in accordance with outlined guidelines (OECD 2015; UNODC 2011). Besides, the body charged with the oversight duty should follow up and ensure that those who need to benefit receive the gain, which in this scenario should be increased learning opportunities for migrant learners. The other critical factor to consider that would improve the implementation process would be to engage in constant reviews that engage immigrant learners and their parents (Underwood et al. 2020, 317). The process would offer a good chance to determine whether the adopted practices have a positive impact on them, or whether more need to happen to improve on certain areas (Wright 2018, 33). The intervention may not work as effectively as possible without taking into account these critical factors during the implementation process.

9. References

Department of Education 2020, English proficiency of pupils with English as an additional language. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]  

Gilsenan, J, & Lee, F 2021, ‘Exploring the experiences of recently arrived Latin American migrant parents regarding their children’s education’, Educational Psychology in Practice, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 221-233.

Hamers, J, & Blanc, M 2000, Bilinguality and bilingualism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kraler, A, Kofman, E, Kohli, M, & Schmoll, C 2011, Gender, generations and the family in international migration, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

LeVine, R 2010, Childhood socialization: Comparative studies of parenting, learning and educational change, Comparative Education Research Centre, Hong Kong.

Levitt, P 2004, Transnational migrants: When “home” means more than one country. Available from: <> Accessed May 27, 2022]

Manzoni, C, & Rolfe, H 2019, How schools are integrating new migrant pupils and their families, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, London.

McCarthy, H 2020, ‘Onward migration of Latin American families: negotiating citizenship and mobility in times of crisis’, International Migration, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 59-76.

McIlwaine, C, & Bunge, D 2015, Towards visibility: The Latin American community in London. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Moya, M 2020, Empowering Multilingual learners through critical liberating literacy practices in English-dominated speech communities. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

OECD 2015, Helping immigrant students to succeed at school – and beyond. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Reimers, F 2020, Audacious education purposes how governments transform the goals of education systems, Springer Open, London.

Rizzini, I, & Bush, M 2002, ‘Globalization and children’, Childhood, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 371-374.

Robertson, A, Baars, S, & Bowen-Viner, K n.a., Representation, engagement and participation Latinx students in higher education. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Tikly, P 2017, ‘The future of education for all as a global regime of educational governance’, Comparative Education Review, vol. 61, no. 1,

Turcatti, D, & Vargas-Silva, C 2021, The experiences of London’s Latin American migrants during Brexit and the COVID-19 pandemic. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022] 2022, Immigration Act 2016. Available from: <,measures%20to%20enforce%20immigration%20laws.&text=On%20Thursday%2012%20May%202016,as%20the%20Immigration%20Act%202016.> [Accessed May 27, 2022] 2022 a, Immigration Act: Overview. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022] 2022 b, Immigration Act 2016. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022] 2022 c, New immigration system: what you need to know. Available from: <,for%20entry%20clearance%20in%20advance.> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Reliefweb 2021, Education cannot wait for refugee children in crisis, says Yasmine Sherif. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Underwood, K, Moreno-Angarita, M, Curran, T 2020 ‘An international conversation on disabled children’s childhoods: Theory, ethics and methods’, Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 302-327.

UNHCR 2019, Refugee education in crisis: More than half of the world’s school-age refugee children do not get an education. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

UNESCO n.a., Inclusion in early childhood care and education. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

UNESCO n.a. a, Education for migrants: an inalienable human right. Available from:  <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

UNICEF n.a, UNICEF UK policy position: Access to education for refugee children. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

UNICEF a 2022, Latest statistics and graphics on refugee and migrant children. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

UNODC 2011, Smuggling of migrants. Available from: <> [Accessed May 27, 2022]

Upegui-Hernandez, D 2012, ‘Transnational migration theory’, Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology, doi:

Wall, J 2019, ‘Theorizing children’s global citizenship: Reconstructionism and the politics of deep interdependence’, Global Studies of Childhood, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5-17.

Willems, K, & Vernimmen, J 2017, ‘The fundamental human right to education for refugees: Some legal remarks’, European Educational Research Journal,

Wright, K 2018, International migration and intergenerational transmission: Latin American migrant women and their daughters in London. In Wright, K, Gender, migration and the intergenerational transfer of human wellbeing, Palgrave Pivot, London.

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