Discussion 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b

Discussion 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b



Discussion 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b

Discussion 1a: Leadership and Management in Healthcare.

Leaders in various fields share diverse roles, in a leadership and management context. For instance, we could compare roles carried out in the medical industry as well as corporate scene. For starters, leaders in both fields need to carry out planning and implementation of organizational policies. Leaders in such fields need to meet up and discuss possible policies. Once they come up with them, they are required to ensure, that, their employees successfully carry out the policies put forward. Another leadership role for both fields lies in employee and process assessment. Corporate and medical industry leaders are responsible for employees under them. As a result, they need to assess their employees and provide them with a way forward, should any issue arise (Buchbinder & Shanks, 2007).

However, there are several differences between the medical field and the corporate world, in leadership and management. First, the healthcare industry’s leaders engage in more capacity building. They perceive it as a way of meeting their objectives, and not, an expense to financial objectives. It is also apparent that the main objective of corporate leaders is to maximize on their profits. However, medical industry leaders’ focus is improving quality of care, treatment and services provided to patients. There are several leadership traits that are necessary for a healthcare institution to be effective. First, they need to be observant. This helps in monitoring the quality of care offered in the institution. Secondly, they need to learn continually. This will help the leaders in keeping abreast with trends in the healthcare field. This will also assist them in their roles as mentors to other employees (Garman, Butler & Brinkmeyer, 2006).

Healthcare managers have several essential duties. First, they are required to ensure patient safety in the institution. They do this by continually assessing the institution, as well as, developing smart policies. Secondly, they are required to ensure that the institution provides care of the highest quality. Finally, they are required to ensure smooth running of the organization. They need to ensure that personnel are adequate, and, satisfied with the institution’s work environment. Managers also need to ensure, that, the organization has adequate resources for effective service delivery (Calhoun, 2008).

Several factors make managers effective leaders in the healthcare industry. First, effective leaders are good communicators. As a result, staffs understand what leaders require of them. There are several challenges to leaders in the medical industry. First, optimal use of healthcare information technology has proven to be a tricky affair. Secondly, it is difficult for managers to develop effective ways of interacting with engaged patients. Quick implementation of the industry’s best practices is difficult. This is because evidence-based approaches take long to be developed. The final challenge to health industry leaders lies in proving improvements in population health by the organization, not just treating patients.


Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (2007). Introduction to health care management. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Calhoun, J.G., Dollett, L., Sinioris, M.E., Wainio, J.A., Butler, P.W., Griffith, J.R., et al. (2008). Development of an interprofessional competency model for healthcare leadership. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6), 375- 389. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Garman, A.N., Butler, P and Brinkmeyer, L. (2006). Leadership. Journal of Healthcare Management, 51(6), 360- 363. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Discussion 1b

President Clinton

            Bill Clinton served as President of the United States between 1993 and 2001. During that period, Clinton’s leadership style comes out clearly. First, Clinton’s leadership presents a strong focus on domestic matters. Greenstein (1994) states that policies formulated during his era mostly concerned national matters. He seldom mentioned International matters. Secondly, Clinton was verbal in his leadership. He consistently addressed issues arising, to the public, through the press. However, his use of grammatically correct words portrays him as a positively complex leader. Bill Clinton had several leadership qualities. First, he had the ability to connect with people. His ease in articulating his thoughts and ideals highlights this. Clinton is also able to interact with people, of diverse backgrounds, without prejudice. He held genuine interest in the affairs of people, which is exceptional for a leader (Greenstein, 2000).

            Howard Schultz is the Chairman and CEO of Starbucks. In his administration of the company, several leadership qualities, and his style, emerge. Schultz & Gordon (2011) state that Howard’s leadership style focuses on compassionately engaging employees. He has several leadership qualities, first, he is has great vision. Howard has created innovative solutions to Starbucks’ problems, despite going against common knowledge. Secondly, he is a servant leader. Finally, he has a great sense of integrity. The quote “I will destroy my enemies by converting them to friends” by Maimonides sums up Howard’s leadership style (Stallard, 2011).    


Greenstein, F. I. (1994). The Two Leadership Styles of William Jefferson Clinton. Political Psychology, 15, 2, 351-361

Greenstein, F. I. (2000). The presidential difference: Leadership style from FDR to Clinton. New York: Martin Kessler Books.

Schultz, H., & Gordon, J. (2011). Onward: How Starbucks fought for its life without losing its soul. New York, NY: Rodale.

Stallard, M. L. (2011). Success Television. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://site.successtelevision.biz/leadershipskills/index.php/uncategorized/howard-schultzs-connection-and-leadership/

Discussion 2a:

Management and Motivation

            Motivation is an important tool to any manager. Employees need motivation in order to reach the organization’s goals. It is important to state benefits of motivation, in relation to management. First, motivation of employees enables effective use of resources in the organization. Resources such as machinery require human input before any production takes place. Employees need to be motivated towards the organization’s goals and policies. As a result, managers can minimize the gap between capacity and productivity, of employees, by carrying out motivation policies in the organization.

            Motivation of employees minimizes labor problems in an organization. Motivated employees concentrate their efforts in activities that are productive to the organization. When managers carry out motivational policies, they avoid issues like, labor turnover, absenteeism, and general indiscipline in the organization. Motivation by managers improves cooperation within employees. Due to the urge to produce more, employees generate more teamwork within themselves. As a result, the organization’s efficiency in production also increases. Motivation also leads to stability in the manager’s respective organization. When managers motivate old employees, they are encouraged to stay at the organization. As a result, the organization is able to maintain its efficiency in production. Therefore, managers can maintain the competitive edge in a business by simply motivating their employees (Calhoun et al, 2008).

            Poorly motivated employees are a pitfall to any organization. Poor motivation leads to lost productivity. Employees are not focusing their efforts on organizational goals. Secondly, poor motivation leads to loss of skill sets in the organization. Poorly motivated employees are easily enticed elsewhere. This results in high training costs, of new employees, as well as loss of a competitive advantage. There are several theories relating to motivation of employees in an organization. They all try to explain how managers can improve productivity in their respective organizations. This article relates theories advanced by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. Maslow’s theory states that employee needs are hierarchical. It continues to explain that motivation is necessary for employees to progress to their next need. Herzberg’s theory divides motivation factors into two categories. It explains that there are extrinsic and intrinsic factors (motivators) that enable employees to work harder (Garman & Butler, 2006).

            Managers usually find it difficult to motivate across motivations in the organization. After all, they have different needs and attitudes. Generally, a manager simply acknowledging them in the company’s success motivates traditionalists. From this, we can see application of McGregor’s Theory X at work. Generally, an organization’s long-term benefits motivate Baby Boomers. For instance, retirement packages attract them. To motivate such workers, managers should place a focus on enhancing the work environment. Generation X’ers are motivated by managers, who place a focus on value of work done. To motivate such employees, a focus needs placing on rewards such as quarterly bonuses. Informing Millenials, on their general contribution to the organization, generally motivates them. They like to be included in critical organizational meetings. To motivate this generation, managers need to offer them frequent rewards and words of acknowledgement. As a result, we can see the importance of Gilbreth’s Scientific Management theory in Generation X’ers and Millenials (Buchbinder & Shanks, 2007).


Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (2007). Introduction to health care management. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Calhoun, J.G., Dollett, L., Sinioris, M.E., Wainio, J.A., Butler, P.W., Griffith, J.R., et al. (2008). Development of an interprofessional competency model for healthcare leadership. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6), 375- 389. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Garman, A.N., Butler, P and Brinkmeyer, L. (2006). Leadership. Journal of Healthcare Management, 51(6), 360- 363. Retrieved from ProQuest

Discussion 2b:

            Jack Canfield is undoubtedly America’s leading expert on developing peak performance within employees (Canfield, 2013) . In his works, he has advocated for several leadership traits among leaders. First, he encourages them to maintain a controlled behavior. This enables them to determine employee outcomes, by manipulating events and their responses to the events. Secondly, he encourages leaders to make a habit of asking for feedback from employees. This enables them to keep up with what is happening in the institution. As a result, useful policies can be developed and implemented successfully in health care institutions. In his work, Jack Canfield highlights the importance of a good relationship between individuals. This challenge is especially important in the medical field. Leaders in the, medical industry, need to cultivate relationships that enhance integrity and ethics, in the field (Gaiam Portraits, n.d).

            Mark S. Gold is a researcher at the University of Florida. He is also a world-leading expert on drug abuse. He has held various leadership positions in the medical field (University of Florida Health, 2013). From his work in various organizations, we are able to see his leadership traits clearly. Mark has displayed great honesty in his roles as a leader. For instance, he has maintained an ethical stance in his work combating drug abuse. Mark has great commitment in his leaderships. He has led various teams in medical research. As a result, he has published over 900 medical papers. Mark also portrays various challenges to leadership in the medical field. Through his work, we can see the gap that exists between education and practice in the field. He has worked against this challenge (Gold, n.d).


Canfield, J. (2013). About Jack Canfield – New York Times bestselling Author and Coach. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://jackcanfield.com/about-jack-canfield/

Gold, M. (n.d.). UF College of Medicine Department of Psychiatry. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://drmarkgold.com

University of Florida Health (2013). Center for Addiction Research and Education. Retrieved from http://addictionresearch.health.ufl.edu/faculty/mark-gold/

Gaiam Portraits (n.d.). Spiritual Cinema Circle. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://www.spiritualcinemacircle.com/spiritual-leader/Jack-Canfield-video-interview

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