Many organizations realize that their human resource personnel are the most valued assets they have. Without a good and efficient workforce, companies would not be able to continue their operations. Based on this, many organizations have taken the initiative of training their employees and equipping them with the knowledge and skills they need to remain relevant in the market place. Moreover, the constantly changing work environment has necessitated the need for employee training. There are numerous technological advances and organizations have to ensure that they have the knowledge to use them effectively. Organizations have changed the way they operate and employees cannot depend on the education they received in school before they were employed. They have to renew their knowledge to reflect the changing times. Employee training contributes to increased efficiency, performance, and productivity.

The public sector has recognized the need for employee training. Employees have to refresh their ideas and to acquire new knowledge and skills. Similar to other sectors, the government is not immune to the effects of globalization, and it faces intense pressure to conform to the changing work environment. This requires it to take measures that will ensure that it continues performing and delivering its services efficiently. Such measures include implementing training programs that will equip the employees with the skills they need. The public sector faces a challenge; as it may not have sufficient resources to enable it implement employee programs. Federal agencies, state and local governments each have their own employee needs and they develop training programs that suit their needs.

Employees in the healthcare sector are specialized and professional. Most have received tertiary education and they have undertaken quality training as part of their courses. The healthcare sector is labor intensive and this determines its effectiveness. It is affected by the changing demographics as most of the population ages. People are always looking for ways to improve the delivery of healthcare services, and this has led to the development of different innovations and technologies used in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. This requires workers in the healthcare sector to update their skills. Many health institutions provide training opportunities for their employees. The institutions use different approaches and training methods. Some face the problem of limited funds and this affects their ability to train their employees. This essay compares employee training in the health and public sectors. The two sectors face some similar challenges, which require them to implement employee-training programs. However, they differ in several ways. While the healthcare sector needs to implement training opportunities to attract personnel, the public sector does not face the same kind of pressure. However, it is affected by the rapidly changing work environment and technological changes.

Human Resource Management in the Public Sector

Human resource personnel in the public sector require different types and levels of training depending on factors such as experience and job position. Many people have a negative perception of the public sector and public servants. This perception affects the employees in the public sector. Some of the able workers have ended up quitting their jobs in favor of the private sector (Curristine, Lonti and Joumard 2007, 11). New employees receive different type of training from the supervisors because their needs vary. Some training programs are mandatory as they reflect changes in legislation that affect the public sector. Employee training in the public sector is no longer just concerned with the technical and functional aspects of the job. Instead, it now incorporates the acquisition of a wide range of skills, diagnostic capabilities, problem-solving capabilities, and cross-functional training (Bowman 2009, 14)

Orientation programs are necessary for new employees. They ensure that the employees get the knowledge they need to perform and this means that they are able to become productive more quickly. In some cases, on-the-job training is necessary. Employees who do not have sufficient skills or enough experience learn from the more experienced ones. Some agencies conduct different workshops, conferences, internships, and development programs to help personnel in administration and technical positions. Some jobs are unique to the public service sector and this requires employees to train for such jobs. By having training programs, the government makes it possible for people to acquire the relevant skills and to increase the possibility of advancing in their careers. Departments have training programs that are suited to their areas of specialization. Different agencies practice job rotation, which offers employees the chance to learn more skills and develop in different areas. This form of training equips employees with the knowledge they need to work in different capacities. It increases their chances of promotion and helps in advancing their skills. Employees end up becoming more efficient in their work (Starling 2010, 464-465).

The use of technology has benefited organizations as it has enabled them to offer new methods of training to their employees. Some organizations are using e-learning and e-training approaches to train their employees. This involves using the internet and computer software to gain information (Daly 2012, 124). The public sector includes different departments and agencies, each of which has specified functions and responsibilities. Some agencies use simulation training to equip their workers with the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct their work. Workers in law enforcement benefit from such training. They are able to exercise their skills before encountering an actual event. By using simulation training, departments are able to save on costs and strengthen the ability of their workers (Daly 2012, 124). The public sector provides internship and post internship opportunities in some agencies. For instance, law enforcement agencies in Florida encourage students to seek internship opportunities before completing their education. The students get a chance to gain work experience and the agencies are able to recruit some of the promising talent.

The changing demography in the workforce has created a skills gap in some areas. As majority of the workers in the public sector retire, younger employees with insufficient skills are left to fill their positions. Although they are educated, the younger workforce does not have the same level of skill as the retiring employees and this eventually affects work efficiency. To solve this challenge, many agencies in the public sector are finding it necessary to have training programs, which will equip the younger workers with the skills they need (Daly 2012,119).

Organizations differ in their approach to new employees. In some agencies, the new employees learn about their job as they work with the more experienced workers. Such agencies have adopted on the job training as their main way of training their employees. However, other agencies have structured training programs, which the employees have to undergo as part of their orientation (Southworth 2009, 73)

The limited budget allocated to training makes it less of a priority in the public sector (Bowman 2009, 276). Many agencies do not have sufficient funds to allocate to training programs as they have other pressing needs. In addition, many agencies do not seem to know the value added by developing training programs. Some agencies do not see the need of training mobile employees because they will not benefit from the investment made. Many organizations in the public sector have decentralized their training. They have eliminated training departments and have made training the responsibility of individuals, departmental units, and supervisors. They have the responsibility of determining their training needs and identifying the best way to meet them. Many agencies outsource training and this enables them to benefit from specialized knowledge. Employees in different sectors have taken advantage of online training to acquire new skills (Bowman 2009, 277). Younger employees are more likely to use web-based training while the older workers prefer the traditional face-to-face instruction. Those who prefer online training are able to save traveling costs and time.

The city of Sunnyvale in California has managed to deal with the training budgetary constraints by cross training its employees. Employees in different units such as patrol officers and fire crew receive training that enables them to handle multiple tasks. They receive training that will help them improve their knowledge and skills in their chosen profession. They also acquire new skills that enable them to solve problems in other departments. Some employees choose to work in different jobs as a way of helping them improve the skills they have learnt. For instance, fire fighters can choose to work as patrol officers for a specified period. This reduces the amount that the city spends on training and it helps in improving efficiency in the public sector. In cases of fire, the crew can include people from other departments and units such as detectives and criminal specialists, who can begin the process of collecting evidence and determining the cause of the fire, while at the same time assisting the crew to fight the fire. This arrangement in training programs has enabled the city to reduce its training costs, while at the same time it has provided employees with the skills needed to advance their careers and to work more efficiently (Romney).  

Employees in the civil service in New York benefit from the partnership developed between the state of New York and the civil service employees association. Workers in different agencies in the state can apply for the training program. The NYS & CSEA partnership offers training to public service employees, which enable them to improve their job skills and personal development. The workers can benefit from numerous courses offered online through webinar. This enables employees to train while working. In addition, it reduces traveling time and costs. Workers can choose to take their classes at different training centers located in various places across the state. The training has over one hundred classes dealing with subjects such as writing and language skills, interpersonal communication, work management, math skills, individual development, and trades, operations, and maintenance. Employees in different positions ranging from management to the basic workers can receive the training they need (NYS & CSEA Partnership).

Human Resource Management in the Health Sector

Like many other sectors, employees in the healthcare sector have to deal with the rapid technological changes. Managers and leaders in the healthcare sector need to acquire training despite their years of training and specialization on healthcare matters. This will enable them to become more effective in their leadership capacities (Gesme 2010, 104). Employee training leads to the adoption of better and safer behavior and practices. Intensive and engaged training leads to a reduction of negative outcomes such as accidents and injuries (Burke et al 315-324). Different innovations and new way of doing things have emerged in the healthcare sector. Researchers continue working on new methods of diagnosis, which are more effective. They develop new medications that are efficient and have fewer side effects. They come up with different technologies such as telemedicine, which help in improving healthcare delivery. In addition, researchers are continuously developing new techniques and medical equipment that will improve healthcare. Such changes constitute new knowledge and employees have to undergo training for them to be able to perform. It is not possible to learn everything about healthcare in a school setting. Healthcare workers gain new knowledge on the job, as they encounter different challenges. Healthcare employees have to learn new information and this requires use of resources, which are not always available. Institutions have to deal with budget cuts and increasing health care costs and this has reduced their funds (DOLETA 17).

Professionals and care providers in the healthcare sector have taken advantage of the existing technology and they are using it in their training programs. Health practitioners realize the benefits of using information technology for the purposes of career development. They have a chance to pursue distance learning and they can use it for incumbent worker training. This has helped to retain employees. Healthcare employees work different hours and shifts. Any training program implemented has to be flexible, as this will enable them to meet their work schedules. Technology has made it possible for institutions to provide training opportunities for their workers because it has increased accessibility and made the programs more affordable (DOLETA 17). Institutions are able to offer workers in the rural areas training opportunities by using computer related technologies. Onboarding training begins before an employee starts working and continues for some time after he has begun employment (Gesme 2010, 104). Many institutions have begun offering simulation-based training programs. The programs are safe and employees get a chance to practice their skills in a safe environment (Salas et al., 2008, 3).

There is a high demand in the healthcare industry and many opportunities for people from different backgrounds. This has raised a challenge in the form of language barriers. Some people are not proficient in the English language as it is their second or third language. This is especially the case with Hispanics and immigrants. Institutions are finding it necessary to offer training opportunities for its employees who are not proficient in the English language. The healthcare sector is social and interactive and employees have to communicate with the patients. Communication can be a big challenge if the parties do not understand each other. Instead of dealing with a staff shortage, many health institutions are opting to provide training opportunities for their employees dealing with both verbal and written communication (DOLETA 19).

The Maine Department of Labor received a grant from the Employment & Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. The grant contributes towards employee training and it targets registered nurses, certified nurse assistants, clinical and nurse instructors and workers in allied health occupations in high demand. It enables incumbent health workers on Maine to improve their skills. The Maine department of labor works together with employers in the health sector. It distributes the funds to the employers who then provide training opportunities to their employees. Employees who have completed training programs are assured of a wage increasing and full time employment. Foreign educated workers benefit from the grant. They train and receive national credentials, which enables the unemployed to get jobs and those who are underemployed to get promotions. The fund covers training development, tuition and instructor costs, training materials, on-the-job training, wage subsidies, internship programs, career counseling, case management, and trainee support services. Employees can access the internet to determine the skills they need to advance in their careers (Maine Career Center 2013).

The Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development has responded to the training needs of the health sector in the state by giving the Northwest Wisconsin Workforce Investment Board a grant that will help to solve some of the employee challenges in the healthcare sector. The grant will enable incumbent employees and unemployed workers to receive training. It will enable nurses to continue with their education, provide training to dental assistants, equip workers with critical core health skills, and give dementia specialists a chance to enhance their knowledge and skills, in addition to offering different certificate programs. The board works with different partners including employers and education institutions (NWCEP n. d.)

Significant Similarities and Differences

Both the public and healthcare sectors have been affected by the rapid changes in technology and this has required them to train their employees. They both recognize the value of equipping their employees with the necessary skills that they need to remain relevant. Employers in both sectors use different strategies to train their employees. They both use computer related technology in their training programs. Employees can access training programs offered by their respective agencies and institutions through the internet. In both sectors, some of the training required is mandatory. Such training involves any changes in procedures, legislation, and technology. Employees who are promoted also require training. Both sectors have been affected by the changing demography. Many of the more experienced employees are retiring and they are being replaced by younger workers. In both sectors, workers who get training opportunities increase their chances of promotion and career advancement. Different agencies and institutions determine their training needs and they determine their approaches. In both sectors, employers have to know how they will manage their training needs with limited funds.

The sectors face different challenges and this means that they handle their training needs differently. Employees differ in the way they work, regions of employment, and time schedules. Most of the employees who use the internet for training purposes in the health sectors are young and many of the older workers choose to use traditional training approaches. Most of the workers who use the internet in the healthcare sector are those working in the rural areas. They prefer this mode of training because it offers them flexibility, convenience, and accessibility. Training of employees is more urgent in the healthcare sector. The healthcare sector is sensitive and employees have to receive training whenever new medical innovations, technologies, and methods are introduced in the institutions. Healthcare workers consider employee training important not only for advancing their careers but also for the sake of becoming more efficient in their work.

 The sectors differ in the type of training strategies and approaches they use. Some of the strategies used in the public sector may not be effective in the health sector. For instance, on the job training is one of the most commonly used approaches in the public sector. Employees learn most of the procedures, methods, and rules of the job as they work. Workers in the healthcare sector require academic and professional qualifications even though they receive other forms of training. On-the-job training helps them to develop the knowledge they have already acquired in the classroom.

Case Examples

Interview with Evette Collins 

What professional areas are you in pursuing?

I am involved in mentoring, counseling, onboarding, and career coaching. I am also interested in recruitment, employment networking, training, and performance improvement. I improve my skills in different areas depending on the position I hold within the institution

What skills and capabilities have made you effective in your profession?

I am knowledgeable about computer systems, technologies, and applications, and I find that this has helped me to develop my career. I have excellent verbal and writing skills, which have enabled me to improve my communication skills. I am dedicated in my work and a team player, and this helps in my career as I deal with human personnel. I have taken a course in Spanish and I continue improving my language skills. I have found this to be beneficial as some of the people I work with are Spanish, and this has enabled me to communicate with them better.

What are your perceptions regarding employee training?

I think that organizations should take the initiative of providing training employees in their workforce. They should consider it as an investment since the workers would apply the knowledge they have learned to develop and improve the organization. Learning is a continuous process and one should seek to develop their knowledge and skills. I am open to new ideas and way of doing things.

What are your responsibilities in employee training and how do you conduct it?

I am involved in preparing for the training lessons and developing the curriculum. I advertise whenever there are any classes to ensure that I reach the targeted audience. I track the enrollment and attendance of employees. I also conduct evaluations at the end of every training session (LinkedIn, n. d.).

Managing employee training in the organization

Piedmont healthcare supports employee development and skills acquisitions. Departments and units are responsible for meeting their training needs. In the nursing department, nurses have to undergo orientation programs whenever there is a change in procedure or new practices and equipments are introduced in the institution. The hospital provides nurse training depending on the current need and it offers education opportunities. The hospital has a residency program for the nurses who wish to develop knowledge and skills in a new area of learning. It has an e-learning course developed for preceptor development. The workers learn communication, teaching, and evaluation skills. The hospital has nursing scholarships and clinical level programs for registered nurses (Piedmont Healthcare n. d.).

Interview with Don Brewer

What is your perspective on human personnel training?

I think that all institutions and organizations should embrace human resource training. People are the most valuable assets that an organization can have. It is therefore important to provide them with the necessary skills that will assist them in their professional development.

What initiatives have you taken as the human resource director in the city of South Portland to achieve this?

My department is working together with the southern Maine community college to provide the required training for the employees in different departments. The department heads selects the workers who will receive the training. I believe that the city can be managed better if we have hardworking and talented employees. This can be achieved by giving employees the chance to develop their skills and improve their knowledge.

What departments are involved and which employees will benefit most from the program?

The training program will include employees in different departments such as the police, fire department, public works, and parks and recreation. Currently we are focusing on providing intensive leadership training programs to different individuals, as we believe this will help them improve their departments.

Who is funding the training program?

The city has a professional development and training account. Funding for the entire program will come from this account. We have begun with few participants and this has enabled us to reduce the costs.

What will the employees learn from the program?

The program will equip employees with many skills. Since the participants are acting in a leadership capacity, the program will target issues that will help them to become better managers. They will learn more on motivation, managing conflict, teamwork in decision-making, supervision, and managing change among other topics (Collins 2014).

Managing employee training in the organization

Public sector employees in South Portland benefit from the training opportunities offered at the Portland career center. The center is part of the state network created to enable employees to develop their skills. Workers can access the available programs freely. All the public service departments in the city have training needs. Therefore, they require different training instructions. However, some programs are applicable to employees working in different departments

Organization comparison

Organizations in both sectors recognize the importance of training their employees. They both recognize that each department is more knowledgeable about its training needs. Therefore, the departments take the responsibility of training their employees. The urgency at which training is carried out differs across the sectors. This is evidenced by the clear and elaborate plan that the nursing department at piedmont healthcare has. It is more specific and detailed than the training offered at the public sector. All the nurses at piedmont have the chance of adding their knowledge and skills. However, training is reserved for a select few in South Portland. The city works on a limited budget and it has identified specific areas of training and personnel who can benefit from it.


Organizations in the public and health centers recognize the importance of employee training. They realize that they have to implement training programs so that their employees can remain relevant and become more effective in their performance. Technological changes have been a main factor in determining the necessity of training needs. Organizations are forced to adopt most emerging technologies and employees have to upgrade their skills in that department. The changing demography is a common factor in both sectors. Many sectors are realizing a change as the older and more experienced employees retire. Younger employees require more training to enable them to become more effective in their duties. Despite these similarities, organizations differ in their training approaches and strategies as well as in their urgency and necessity for training. Training is more of a necessity in the healthcare sector and most institutions treat it with urgency. This differs from the approach in the public sector. The public sector conducts employee training based on the funding available. However, some of the training needs are mandatory.


Bowman S. James, West P. Jonathan and Wart R. Montgomery. Human Resource Management in Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes and Problems. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2009

Burke J. Michael, Sarpy A. Sue, Crowe S. Kristin, Serafin C. Suzanne, Salvador O. Rommel and Islam Gazi. “Relative Effectiveness of Worker Safety and Health Training Methods.” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 2 (2006): 315-324

Collins, I. Kate. South Portland Investing in the City’s Future. Last modified March 26, 2014. http://www.keepmecurrent.com/current/news/south-portland-investing-in-the-city-s-future/article_fa4b49b8-b513-11e3-9aab-0019bb2963f4.html

Curristine Teresa, Lonti Zsuzsanna and Joumard Isabelle. “Improving Public Sector Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities.” OECD Journal on Budgeting 7, no. 1 (2007): 1-42

Daly, L. John. Human Resource Management in the Public Sector: Policies and Practices. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2012

DOLETA. “Health Care Industry: Identifying and Addressing Workforce Challenges.” U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. Last modified February 2004. http://www.doleta.gov/brg/pdf/pdf3.pdf

Federal Times. Federal Employees Focus on Mission in Face of Adversity. Last modified May 6, 2013. http://www.federaltimes.com/article/20130506/AGENCY02/305060007/Federal-employees-focus-mission-face-adversity#top

Gesme H. Dean, Towle L. Elaine and Wiseman Marian. “Essentials of Staff Development and why you should Care.” Journal of Oncology Practice 6, no. 2 (2010): 104-106

Goldsmith, Stephen and Eggers D. William. Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector. Brookings: Brookings Institutions Press, 2004

LinkedIn. Evette Collins. http://www.linkedin.com/pub/evette-collins/21/452/1b8

Louisiana Department of State Civil Service. Training-Comprehensive Public Training Program (CPTP). http://www.civilservice.louisiana.gov/Divisions/Training/About.aspx

Maine Career Center. Maine Health Care Sector Grant. Last modified 2013. http://www.mainecareercenter.com/workforce/hcgrant/

NWCEP. “$290,000 in Healthcare Training Dollars Awarded to Regional Healthcare Industry Partnership.” Northwest Wisconsin Concentrated Employment Program. http://www.nwcep.org/index.asp?menuID=256&firstlevelmenuID=180&siteID=1

NYS & CSEA Partnership. “Skills for Success Courses Provide Employees with an Opportunity for Success at Work and Life.” NYS & CSEA Partnership. Last modified January 21, 2014. http://www.nyscseapartnership.org/SuccessStory/Gallery.cfm

Piedmont Healthcare. “Celebrating Nurse Development at Piedmont.” Piedmont Healthcare. http://www.piedmont.org/Main/Living-Better1/281.aspx

Romney, Lee. “Cross-Training of Public Safety Workers Attracting More Interest.” Los Angeles Times. Last modified January 1, 2013. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jan/01/local/la-me-sunnyvale-20130101

Salas Eduardo, Wilson Katherine, Lazzara Elizabeth, King Heidi, Augenstein Jeffery, Robinson Donald, Birnbach J. David. “Simulation-Based Training for Patient Safety: 10 Principles that Matter.” Journal of Patient Safety 4, no. 1 (2008): 3-8

Southworth, Dixon. A Human Resource Framework for the Public Sector. Vienna: Management Concepts Press, 2009

Starling, Grover. Managing the Public Sector. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010

Tharenou, Phyllis. “The Relationship of Training Motivation to Participation in Training and Development.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 74, no. 5 (2001): 599-621

How to place an order?

Take a few steps to place an order on our site:

  • Fill out the form and state the deadline.
  • Calculate the price of your order and pay for it with your credit card.
  • When the order is placed, we select a suitable writer to complete it based on your requirements.
  • Stay in contact with the writer and discuss vital details of research.
  • Download a preview of the research paper. Satisfied with the outcome? Press “Approve.”

Feel secure when using our service

It's important for every customer to feel safe. Thus, at Supreme Assignments, we take care of your security.

Financial security You can safely pay for your order using secure payment systems.
Personal security Any personal information about our customers is private. No other person can get access to it.
Academic security To deliver no-plagiarism samples, we use a specially-designed software to check every finished paper.
Web security This website is protected from illegal breaks. We constantly update our privacy management.

Get assistance with placing your order. Clarify any questions about our services. Contact our support team. They are available 24\7.

Still thinking about where to hire experienced authors and how to boost your grades? Place your order on our website and get help with any paper you need. We’ll meet your expectations.

Order now Get a quote