FINANCE AND ECONOMICS
The need for disaster management is fundamentally significant in an era where natural occurring disasters are rampant. This discussion is mainly centralized on the key disciplines that are used as guidelines in management of disasters learnt through the course. It is a system solely based on responsibilities, clarified roles and process related to organizational requirements. It is the responsiveness and related action taking into account crisis handling, its prevention and termination. The purpose of this management is to ensure ample preparation in response to crisis and maintenance of communication lines and reporting in the event of disaster, and the guarantee that lives are saved. There are several disciplines that encompass disaster management that require critical discussion.
The first discipline is preparedness. Unfortunately, the governmental response does not always operate effectively (Schneider 2011, 3). Preparedness involves a rigorous training of the personnel in disaster guidelines and protocols and preparing equipment and procedures to be followed when disaster strikes. These measures can take the form of construction of shelters, rehearsal on evacuation plans, and creation of back-up lifeline services and installation of warning devices. An organized response team guarantees that the necessary equipment is available and on site after the disaster. For effective planning, different agencies are assigned diverse roles on what to do when disaster occurs.
The next fundamentally relevant discipline is the mitigation process. Disasters trigger a response. They easily qualify as triggering mechanisms (Schneider 2011, 14). It is a well-intended joint effort to minimize the overall cost of human life and property resulting after the disaster. It involves the assessment of possible risks to personal or family health and to personal property. Structural and non-structural measures are put in place limiting the effects of the disaster. Non-structural mitigation means a form of insurance or change of location to a secure area. Structural mitigation is the characteristic change of a building or its surrounding to make it safe. It is inclusive of training emergency personnel, evacuation strategies, flood plans and floodwalls. Professionals should be hired to conduct risk identification and assessment surveys. Families and individuals can also be trained to prevent unnecessary risks (Fink 2013, 4).
Protection of the people also falls under the above-mentioned disciplines. They are given specific instructions that enable them to protect their lives and reduce potential property loss. These guidelines are given in the form of emergency alerts warning people about the status of the disaster and reassuring them that help is on the way. They may include evacuation orders or a set of protective measure the citizen can carry out in their own homes. The affected citizens are usually in need of necessities for sustenance as the rescue measures are set up (Clements 2009, 56). The responsiveness to those needs is also a crucial discipline. “Providence of food, shelter, access to emergency personnel and emergency needs is part of disaster management” (Burke 2011, 78).
Proceeding after the disaster has been managed is the recovery phase. It commences after the threat to human life has subsided. Its role is to return the affected region to normalcy. It works to establish long-term medical care for those affected. Measures of rebuilding and working to reduce the occurrence of future similar disasters are also enacted. Strict analysis is also done to “understand the cause and effect of the disaster hence strategizing plans to avoid future occurrences” (Kapucu and Orzedem 2013, 45). Prevention is a recently added discipline. Its main function is to conduct strict analysis on areas prone to natural disasters. They then implement preventative measures such as construction of houses on poles in flood prone areas.
Disaster management is a vital area to be focused and invested in to ensure
that a state is fully prepared in times of disaster. The governments should
implement effective measures that guarantee a timely response to disasters.
Proper planning and organization in handling the needs of the affected individuals
should also be considered. Public health facilities should have an emergency
response team and contingency plans set up that can cater fully to the victims
of disaster. The above-mentioned disciples should be utilized as guidelines in
planning and organizing disaster management protocols in governments.
Professionals in disaster management should be hired to assess disaster prone
areas and countercheck the protocols followed when dealing with disasters for verification.
Burke, Robert E. and Leonard H. Friedman. Essentials of management and leadership in public health. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011.
Clements, Bruce. Disasters and public health: Planning and response. Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009 .
Fink, Sheri. Five Days at Memorial. New York: Crown Publishers, 2013.
Kapucu, Naim and Ozerdem, Alpasian. Managing emergencies and crisis. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013
Saundra K. Dealing with disaster: Public
management in crisis situations. New
York: M.E. Sharpe, 2011.