Background of Job Involvement
Human resource management (HRM) has transformed tremendously since its introduction into the business community. Job involvement is among the determinants that influence the success rate of HRM systems. The concept of job involvement began during the First World War. Employment rates had increased due to government incentives that were aimed at increasing the levels of industrial production. Employers were interested in attaining maximum output from all employees. Together with psychologists, employers identified job involvement as crucial determinant in employee performances. Research had also established that job involvement could not be demanded, but had to be natured through effective HRM. To enhance job involvement, employers identified a number of factors, such as democratic management styles, that promoted employee involvement decision making.
Over the years, HRM identified more tools that enhanced job involvement. Employees have become more committed and attached to their institutions. With better financial performances, modern HRM systems have gone a notch higher in enhancing job involvement. More researches have been conducted to establish the relationship between organizational climate, job involvement and employee motivation and satisfaction. Managers have noticed that employee involvement not only promotes better performances, but it also encourages employee retention. Furthermore, they have realized that job evolvement by currents employees will improve the institution’s image and attract other qualified professionals.
The Study 1
A Cognitive Examination of Job Involvement. The researcher studies the relationship between organizational identity and job involvement (Gash, 1984).
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the research was to establish responses to issues that concerned job involvement of workers in selected business environments. The researcher sought to investigate job involvement in regards to organization’s identity by focusing on aspects of business and operational management.
The researcher used secondary sources to collect qualitative data that supported the thesis statement. Random sampling of organizations and employees was conducted to select the interviewees. Through personal interviews and physical examination, the researcher gathered quantitative data.
In his research, Gash (1984) found out that organizations whose employees expressed high job involvement towards their duties and institutions, portrayed a positive impression to the public. The positive image also signified job satisfaction among employees and efficiency in business and operational and business management.
Management Learning From the Study
The research was very informative. The researcher determined the role of job design in employee involvement. From the research, it was evident that the nature of job designs determined the level of employee involvement. Managers must understand that the level of knowledge and personal interests of their employees towards work, influence job involvement. Employees, who are well conversant and love their field of work, record high emotional attachment organizations. The researcher also pointed out the significance of job involvement, and conducted a research to ascertain the level of its impact on the image of the organization and employee satisfaction.
Clearly, job involvement is an extension of an organizations identity. It reflects the vision, mission and values of an organization. In order to attain these three aspects of an organization’s identity, it is crucial for managers to nature personal commitment and emotional attachment on all employees. According to Scott, Jaffe and Tobe (1993), involvement of all stakeholders, especially subordinate employees, is very critical in designing and attaining an organization’s vision. Jones and Volpe (2011) share the same opinion but add that social identity theory, through psychological identification or organizational belongingness, creates the ideology of ‘us-and-them’ among employees. Since ‘them’ in this case would mean competitors, social identity theory would create distinctiveness in an organization.
The Study 2
The Dynamics of Job Involvement: A Study of the Congruence among Personality, Job and Organization Factors in the Context of Changing Demographic Variables. The researcher studied the effect of job involvement on an organization’s performance (Sekaran, 1977).
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the research was to establish the contribution made by job involvement towards the general performance of an organization. Furthermore, also aimed at determining the level by which emotional attachment an employee contributed the general performance of the entire organization.
The study aimed at exploring a four-way relationship between organizational climate, employee motivation, satisfaction and job performance. Primary data was collected through physical examination and personal interviews that were conducted through a random sampling method. The sampling of the target population was based on job tenure, seniority, education level, age and gender. Sekaran also conducted research on secondary sources, which had been written by other scholars. Most of the secondary sources outlined the direct relationship between time spent by employees on inputs and the amount output in terms of the quantity of goods and services produced.
The research established that higher job involvement resulted to better organizational performance. Furthermore, it ascertained that the general performance of the organization was higher because employees extended their support to co-workers. Finally, it was evident that organizational climate, employee motivation and satisfaction were directly related to the ultimate performance of each employee.
Management Learning From the Study
The findings of this research make immense contribution to the field of management. It demonstrate that job involvement improve both in-role and extra-role performances. Due to the commitment by all employees, the entire staff is not only determined to improve their individual performances, but they are also keen on improving the general performance of the organization by providing support to co-workers. Furthermore, the research points out that high staff motivation leads to employee satisfaction, which is a vital determinant in job involvement. On the contrary, low job involvement among employees might lead to alienation and individualism, which results to poor performance. Thus, to increase their competitive advantage, managers have to improve on their job involvement by fostering high levels of employee motivation and satisfaction.
The issue of job
designing has also been pointed out in the research findings. If possible,
mangers should re-design the jobs within their institution to ensure employee
familiarity and personal commitment to work. Furthermore, psychologically safe
and meaningful working environments are more likely to enhance involvement and
commitment by employees in terms of energy and time spent at the workplace (Congresso
italiano di sistemica, Minati, Abram, Pessa & Associazione italiana per la
ricerca sui sistemi, 2009). Finally, the research also established that different
demographic responded differently to motivations. Therefore, it is important
for managers to identify different types of employee motivations tools that
target the uniqueness of each demographic. For example, annual salary increment
might be appropriate for a youthful taskforce. The impact would not be the same
in the case of older employees, who are almost retiring. Having the correct
motivational tools will enhance job involvement, and in turn improve the
general performance of employees.
Congresso italiano di sistemica, Minati, G., Abram, M., Pessa, E., & Associazione italiana per la ricerca sui sistemi. (2009). Processes of Emergence of Systems and Systemic Properties: Towards A General Theory of Emergence: Proceedings of the International Conference, Castel Ivano, Italy, 18-20 October 2007. Singapore: World Scientific.
Gash, D. C. (1984). A Cognitive Examination of Job Involvement. New York, NY: Cornell University
Jones, C., & Volpe, E. H. (2011). Organizational identification: Extending our understanding of social identities through social networks. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 3, 413-434. doi: 10.1002/job.694
Scott, C. D., Jaffe, D. T., & Tobe, G. R. (1993). Organizational vision, values and mission. Menlo Park, Calif: Crisp Publications.
Sekaran, U. (1977). The Dynamics of Job Involvement: A Study of the Congruence among Personality, Job and Organization Factors in the Context of Changing Demographic Variables. Ann Arbor, Mich: Xerox University Microfilms.