Mouse Gonad Development





Mouse Gonad Development


The development of genes or its expression is defined through the heritable changes not caused by DNA sequence adjustments status and transcription factors on their cross talk. There are numerous factors of transcription, which help determine the mammalian sex. What is unknown is the contribution of the epigenetic regulation in the process. The tissue specific gene expression and regulation of development is through the CpG sequences stemming from DNA methylation. The somatic cells of gonads in mice appear to carry restrictions. The restrictions explain why histone demethylation is important in determination of mammalian sex, especially within the Y chromosome. The Sry gene is controlled by epigenetic mechanism through mediation of DNA methylation to alter the chromosomal composition and determine the sex in mice.


In order for all the animal species to survive and ensure continuity in their generations, the two sex developments are necessary. There are several factors responsible for the transcription and differentiation of sex in the genes of organisms. Some of theses factors constitute Sry encoding of the Y gene chromosome as a contributing mainstay. In the male development, the Sry is vital for the formation of pathway of the testis (Tollefsbol 388). The pathway is enabled through temporally accurate and sufficient expression in a critical manner. It encodes the master protein responsible for cascade in the testicular differentiation. The chromatin functions are correlated with posttranslational modifications of the histones. Some of these include lysine 9, lysine 4 and Jmjdla all of which are histones.

            The DNA methylation is generally observed to occur at CpG dinucleotides of cytosine in the higher vertebrates. Between 60-70% of these are contained in the mammalian genome (Tollefsbol 388). The methylation silences, switches and stabilizes the genes together with the remodeling of the chromatin. With the use of animal reagents and treatments, experimental procedures were carried out to determine the expression means within mice. The sex-reversed kind contained fertile species within them. The Jmjdla deficient kind of mice carried the Y chromosome on the autosomal background and only showed the characteristic with loss of the genetic origin. Partial sex reversal was observed in the ovotestes resulting from failure in the pathway of testis.

            Sry expression was significantly lower in the coefficients of XY labeled as XY CBA as compared to XY B6. The expression was observed in the mutant gonads and control kind. During the development of gonads, expression profile of the protein in Jmjdla was investigated. In mesonephric cells, Jmjdla was not observed at all unlike in somatic and germ cells of the gonads. Increase in the MRNA expression was noted up to a level of leveling as concerns the amounts of Jmjdla. The profile expression in temporal means is consistent with Sry regulation of direct kind by the Jmjdla. With the help of chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis, linkage of the Sry expression and Jmjdla was established.


Survival and continuity of animal species in the environment depends on the differentiation and existence of the two distinct sexes. Several factors of transcription in the genetic composition and chromosomal activities help distinguish the development of mammalian sex. The somatic cells of gonads in mice appear to carry restrictions. Restrictions within the Y chromosome affect the histone demethylation and subsequently determine the sex. The epigenetic mechanism through mediation of DNA methylation controls the Sry gene and alters the chromosomal composition in mice to determine the sex.

Work Cited

Tollefsbol, Trygve O. Transgenerational Epigenetics: Evidence and Debate. London: Academic Press, 2014. Print.

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