The Analects is a collection of ideas and sayings attributed to the Chinese philosopher, Confucius. It is based on contemporary traditional beliefs of the Chinese people. The sayings were published by Confucius followers in 500 BC. This quote relates to a conversation between the Duke of She and Confucius. The Duke of She told Confucius about an upright man, Kung, who stood for what he believed, was right. The man would go to the extent of bearing witness against his father for appropriating a sheep. In addition, Confucius said that among them, a son may block his father and vice versa yet, it is still considerer as being upright. This quote meant that different people have different personal definitions of being upright. This quote goes against the Chinese filial piety when they support their ideas of being upright.
The Bhagadvad Gita is a Hindu text that means ‘Song of Our Lord’. The scripture was written from 400 BCE to 400 CE. It narrates about Krishna who was teaching an unwilling soldier, Arjuna. This quote relates to discipline. Krishna explains the difference between a god and man. It means that everyone can become who he or she wants to be. What one becomes in the end is a result of their choice. Therefore, a disciplined person has a pure spirit that can understand the mysteries of the world. Discipline can bring people closer to God only if they believed in Him and followed his ways.
Job is one the books in the Hebrew Bible. It is a Christian text that was written in 1500 BC by Job himself. The quote was written at the time when Job had gone through a lot of suffering. His children died together with the animals, he lost his wealth and became sick. He endured all these difficulties while still believing that God was testing him. It is evident from the quote that he was bitter with what was happening in his life. Despite the sufferings he went through, he kept his faith in God and did not allow mockery from his friends about his beliefs.
A Bhikkuni is a fully ordained female Buddhist. The teachings of Buddha had eight Garudhammas that the nuns in Buddhism should follow. In the olden times, the nuns were ordered to bow before any monk. However, Buddha later changed the rule. This is because the Vinaya recounts of the story where six monks lifted their robes in order to show their thighs to the nuns. The quote refers to the exception that Buddha made regarding the heavy rules. After these changes, nuns were allowed to bow before the ordained monks only.
This quote comes from the speech in the Debate on Sicily written by Thucydides from about 430 B.C.E. It was a response by Alcibiades to the speech made by Nicias when he was trying to persuade Athenian Delegation not to provide Sicily with 60 ships to help them fight the Selinintines. The quote meant that if they could not help Sicily, it would ruin itself. In my own view, an active city should strive and maintain that status because when it becomes idle, it would collapse. This idea can only be actualized when men in the city take their stand on proper leadership.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an old story that is inscribed in clay tablets. The stories were narrated by a noble man probably between 2700 and 2600 B.C. This quote is from tablet X. Gilgamesh had gone through struggles in his journey through the mountain and emerged into a magical garden. This represented a second birth to him. The garden belonged to Siduri, the goddess in making wine. Siduri advised Gilgamesh to stop focusing on eternal life and enjoy his present life.