Response Papers

Response Papers



Response Papers

Theme 1

In Rethinking Architecture, Neil Leach attempts to relate the facets of architecture with those of social sciences (Leach, 2009). According to his argument, the structures and plans of a building can aid in analyzing the thoughts of the designer. The main aspect presented in this informative text is the ideology of post structuralism. This interdisciplinary feature, which integrates scientific and artistic facets, emphasizes the execution of the indicated features with respect to architecture. With the focus being on the metropolis setting, the author highlights the importance of the textual analysis of these centers as opposed to their functional examination (Leach, 2009).

With the factor of social sciences coming into the glare of publicity, the writer of this passage asserts that the society ought to channel their attention to the comprehension of factors that influence the societal activities rather than basing their architectural deeds on the plainly planned arrangement of the physical space. With the aim of supporting this allegation, he states that the activities of human beings are subject to manipulation by the verbal perceptions formulated and spread by the community (Leach, 2009). For this reason, it is irrational for the public to base their ideas on the physical concepts of architecture.  

Moreover, based on the credible arguments in this text, post structuralism seeks to disregard the theory of content elucidation in informative literature by embracing comparative and cancellation aspects. For instance, by use of metaphors, this architectural philosopher asserts that designers should replace the traditional forms of space accessories with symbolic appliances (Leach, 2009). Through this argument, the author supports the thought that the structural configuration of a building determines the opinion of the planner. For this reason, it is important to consider the interpretation of the design in order to convey the right message to the public.

Theme 2

In Becoming Places, the author centers his discussion on the relationship between architectural concepts in the urban centers and the creation of power and identity (Dovey, 2010).He alleges that the physical surroundings define our character and level of influence. The emphatic nature of this discussion arises from incorporation of the collective speculations of Deleuze and Bourdieu. With the focus being on urbanization of Yogyakarta, the author attempts to present a detailed connection between the physical structures in the metropolis and the stability of the region’s identity (Dovey, 2010).

For instance, the writer provides an insight into the urban suburbs of this area. Yogyakarta, an urban center in Indonesia that houses various structural designs, has a unique neighborhood. The monuments and artistic buildings in this region have aided in formulating and promoting the nation’s identity. According to the assertions in this book, the metropolitan area acquires substantial amount of power and uniqueness from the designs and details of its physical space (Dovey, 2010). For this reason, it is important for the administration of urban centers to appreciate the importance of certain architectural aspects when developing the area.

The discussions in this literature piece relate to the physical environments in various urban centers, both in developing and developed countries. For instance, the Japanese metropolitan areas have a unique and characteristic feature with respect to artistic forms. The buildings in these centers comprise of well-designed structures that influence the character of the inhabitants of the city (Dovey, 2010). The appreciation of these architectural particulars influences the general population to value such arty concepts as music, poetry, and exterior design. Consequently, the issues addressed in this text are valid with reference to the environments of certain urban centers in the world.

Theme 3

The Anti-Aesthetic is a detailed anthology that analyses the cultural feature of architecture. By highlighting the arty traditions in America, the author successfully coveys his message regarding postmodern art and culture (Foster, 2002). Postmodernism is one of the key issues addressed in this collected works. To achieve his objective, the writer concentrates on the features included in the architecture of resistance with the main aim of promoting critical regionalism. This cultural criticism provides an appropriate platform to compare the arty concepts of modernism and postmodernism.  

Based on the author’s assertions, an efficient architect should be able to transform existing images into artistic objects that display authenticity and creativity (Foster, 2002). This is possible through the calculated incorporation of certain arty aspects such as repetition, extraction, and accumulation of new and old ideas. Through his positive criticism, the author of this informative passage also emphasizes on the fundamental nature of production and reproduction with reference to design techniques. For instance, it is possible to assemble old ideas in an image while still incorporating such tactics as transfer drawings.

     However, the writer highlights that the designers and general populace have failed to recognize the importance of integrating the social and cultural knowledge and norms into art-related plans. Subsequently, the message conveyed by the resultant designs are less effective and appealing (Foster, 2002). The discourse of art relates to the cultural comprehension of the designer. This argument has a connection with the contemporary form of art. Under this category, artists who base their products on cultural and social events convey an effective and appealing message to the target audience.

Theme 4

            In Architecture of Regionalism in the Age of Globalization, Alex and Liane discuss issues related to the distinctiveness, social order, and sustainability of architecture in different regions of the world (Lefaivre & Tzonis, 2012).By using relevant metropolitan areas, the writers highlight the extraordinary architectural structures in certain parts of the globe. The main issue addressed in this literature piece is the effects of globalization on architecture. By scrutinizing the ideas presented in this book, one is able to identify the positive and negative outcomes of this developmental occurrence.

            To start with, this advancement has enabled artists to expand their creativity through the simple incorporation of social and cultural ideologies from various regions of the world. The strong relations among countries and continents in terms of technology, science, and fine art have made it possible for artists to comprehend and integrate various intellectual concepts in their creations (Lefaivre & Tzonis, 2012). Consequently, globalization has resulted in privileged circumstances at the individual and national levels. However, this worldwide growth has negatively influenced the art sub sector.

            Based on the knowledge attained from this educational document, globalization is to blame for the negative effects of regionalism experienced in the world. It has not only resulted in the disintegration of the once unified society but has also led to the destructive nature of industrial tourism (Lefaivre & Tzonis, 2012). Consequently, the society has concentrated on increasing their wealth as opposed to conveying useful messages to the general population regarding several issues through their creations. The evaluation of regionalism in this book provides an insight into the problems facing the fine art sector worldwide.

Theme 5

Architecture and Identity is a manuscript that focuses on the effects of technological and cultural changes with respect to postmodernism. The stimulating links in this book include issues such as the environment, history, and technology. Through his writings, Chris Abel illustrates the growth of the modern-day architecture in the region of Asia Pacific (Abel, 2000). He provides the readers with a stimulating discussion by linking rational artistic concepts with various environmental factors. To him, regional architecture is a valuable aspect that the public should embrace in order to transform the fundamentals of structural design.

Moreover, he asserts that comprehending the cultures of various regions in the world will provide artists with the necessary skills in creating products that not only appeal to the physical eye but also convey the right message in an effective manner (Abel, 2000). This writer has successfully compiled scientific, technological, and social aspects in his document, making it possible for a large portion of the general populace to relate with the ideas addressed in the book. It offers the public a different perception of the architectural facet. Based on his arguments, human beings can transform their creations to deliver vital information with minimal words.

While concentrating on the structural designs and metropolitan areas of the Asian continent, Abel utilizes philosophical ideologies to show the relationship between customs and modernism. It is evident that certain domestic and international factors are responsible for the transformation of architecture in the urban regions of this continent (Abel, 2000). Most of these influences relate to cultural and ecological aspects. Based on the arguments in this passage, past events have an influence on the present trend of structural designs. Subsequently, it is important to utilize these records in order to improve this arty feature.

Theme 6

Similar to previously analyzed manuscripts, Third World Modernism is an informative piece that discusses the relationships between architecture, identity, and development in various parts of the world. Duanfang Lu has compiled evidence that illustrates the growth of the structural designs in developing nations. According to his discussion, this advancement has resulted in the stabilization of national and cultural identities in the third world states (Lu, 2011). Consequently, this literature piece provides a different perspective towards architectural concepts worldwide.

The author has evaluated postmodernism by presenting a different perspective from the usual western traditions regarding fine art and constructions. Duanfang asserts that the cultures in the developing nations are rich with creative ideologies, which can help artists to create artifacts related to the modern world. According to his arguments, architectural modernism is broader than the developmental targets promoted by the developed countries (Lu, 2011). Being a key feature of fine art, structural design is sensitive to the natural and artificial environments, making it subject to manipulation by the designer.

Based on these concepts, the diversity of the architects is evident in the artifact. One is able to detail his or her philosophy and feelings through an arty product. Consequently, third world modernism seeks to override the convictions and central concepts of control regarding the traditional interpretation of modernization (Lu, 2011). Not only does the writer of this book focus on urban centers but he also analyses the traditional structures in the countries, which demonstrate a rich cultural background of the inhabitants. This proves the argument that history has a strong connection with art.

Theme 7

            In Architecture, Power, and National Identity, Lawrence Vale addresses the relationship between the structural designs in major metropolitan areas and their importance in promoting the national distinctiveness in the contemporary world. By basing his evidence on various urban centers in India, Kuwait, United States, and Bangladesh, the author illustrates the significance of certain famous monuments to the relevant state (Vale, 2008). For a long time, various regimes have used certain artifacts to symbolize national power. Based on the fundamental mission of architecture, these works of art send a specific message to the public.

            One can comprehend the principles of a federal administration by analyzing the fundamental architectural conceptions in its premises. This is because the buildings owned by a political institution encompass a calculated combination of opinionated, cultural, and historical aspects depending on the authority’s ideologies. While supporting his arguments with modernism and postmodernism presumptions, Lawrence appreciates that various governments have used specific architectural concepts to encourage pluralism while representing authority and distinctiveness (Vale, 2008).

             The Lincoln Memorial in Washington is an appropriate example that supports the discussion of Lawrence in this manuscript. This historical artifact aids in reminding citizens of the journey to freedom as well as the principles governing the administration of the United States. Subsequently, the uniqueness and symbolism of this historical creation symbolizes authority and national identity (Vale, 2008). This is because a picture of this artifact channels the mind of the viewer to the United States and its past and present administrations. For this reason, architecture is an aspect that conveys the past, present, and future of a nation without the use of verbal or written information.

Theme 8

        Michael Zimmerman, in Architecture, Ethics, and Globalization, identifies and explains the link between the architectural presumption and the certified application lessons (Owen, 2009). Moreover, he recognizes that globalization has not only affected the technological facet of the world but it has also transformed the ethical ideologies in arty and scientific disciplines. According to the discussions in this document, architecture has a responsibility to enlighten the general population on the importance of making rational decisions with respect to moral values. The persuasive nature of this piece of literature is possible because of the incorporation of the comparison technique.   

            Zimmerman makes use of the postmodernism theory to address the architectural presumption (Owen, 2009). Use of the comparison and contrast techniques in this passage has aided in analyzing the metaphysical foundationalism and western ethnocentrism. Additionally, the author tackles multiculturalism as an ethical and political concept arising from postmodernism. He uses appropriate examples to present moral predicaments facing architects. Based on this argument, globalization may cause impediments in the promotion of ethical thoughts within a multicultural outline.

            The example of a multicultural-cautious American artist serving Asian customers is appropriate in elaborating this theory. In such a situation, the architect may have to overlook ethical aspects of his or her arty innovation in order to ensure the success of the creation as well as acquiring high proceeds from his or her work of art (Owen, 2009). This is because the assignment may result in severe consequences in terms of political, cultural, social, or environmental infringements. For this reason, one can term architecture as a sensitive affair that has to balance modernism, ethics, and creativity.   

Theme 9 and 10

Regional Architecture and Identity in the Age of Globalization is an informative text that summarizes architectural perceptions in the Arab region (CSAAR 2007, Al-Qawasmi, Mahmoud, Djerbi & Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region, 2008).The persuasive nature of this book results from the substantial evidence presented by the writer. With this region comprising of detailed and diverse structural designs, the arguments in this manuscript denotes the power and connection of culture and art. Like other architectural passages, this literature piece seeks to show the effects of globalization on arty projects as well as the importance of fine art in stabilizing the identity of a country.

To start with, globalization has aided in strengthening regional distinctiveness. Regionalism is evident in the concepts of modernism, architectural presumptions, and the societal norms of a community (CSAAR 2007, Al-Qawasmi, Mahmoud, Djerbi & Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region, 2008). Consequently, the discourses of regionalism and globalization have a direct effect on the natural and artificial environments. Moreover, these two aspects of development have a strong relationship, with each of them influencing the proceedings of the other. For this reason, regional architecture undergoes constant transformation depending on the advancement of technological, ecological, and cultural facets.

Furthermore, this passage identifies and explains the link between the trends in the colonial period and the contemporary innovations of structural designs. This provides detailed dynamics of regionalism in addition to illustrating its competition with globalization. By concentrating on the Arabic region, these set of intellectuals gives additional details about the responsibility of architecture with respect to promoting cultural and national identities. Although regionalism can incorporate new ideas influenced by modernism, it tends to stick to traditional concepts depending on the area’s way of life (CSAAR 2007, Al-Qawasmi, Mahmoud, Djerbi & Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region, 2008).

Likewise, this literature compilation appreciates that centralized structural designs in the Arabic countries not only affect the domestic environment but also have an international effect. For instance, the architects in these nations have to transform their arty thoughts and activities in order to concur with the contemporary trends in other parts of the world. Conversely, artists from other geographical regions may borrow ideas from this environment with the main aim of enhancing the effectiveness of their creations. This contradicting interaction makes it difficult to address regionalism while excluding globalization.

As indicated by the authors of this manuscript, regionalism is a theory promoted by specific historical events. With most of the contemporary architectural pieces incorporating the cultural and societal values of an area, one is able to deduce substantial facts from properly crafted artifacts. For example, most constructions in the Arabic zone have a unique characteristic that exhibit a common historical record (CSAAR 2007, Al-Qawasmi, Mahmoud, Djerbi & Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region, 2008). Subsequently, art-cautious individuals can learn a lot from the structural designs in this region by analyzing the fine particulars of such artistic buildings.

Although the negative effects of globalization seem to be eroding the beneficial concepts of regionalism, it is important for the general population to appreciate the unique traditional aspects of architecture by incorporating various arty techniques in their constructions. This will not only help in strengthening the cultural framework of the region but it will also enhance the value of architecture in the global world. Based on the evaluation of these architectural documents, it is rational to assert that the effectiveness of construction depends on cultural, political, and environmental aspects that influence modernization.


Abel, C. (2000). Architecture and identity: Responses to cultural and technological change. Oxford: Architectural Press.

CSAAR 2007, Al-Qawasmi, J., Mahmoud, A., Djerbi, A., & Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region. (2008). Regional architecture and identity in the age of globalization: The second International Conference of the Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region (CSAAR 2007). S.l.: CSAAR Publications.

Dovey, K., & Dovey, K. (2010). Becoming places: Urbanism/architecture/identity/power. London: Rout ledge.

Foster, H. (2002). The anti-aesthetic: Essays on postmodern culture. New York: New Press.

Leach, N. (2009). Rethinking architecture: a reader in cultural theory. Rout ledge.

Lefaivre, L., & Tzonis, A. (2012). Architecture of regionalism in the age of globalization: Peaks and valleys in the flat world. Abingdon, Oxon: Rout ledge.

Lu, D. (2011). Third world modernism: Architecture, development and identity. New York, NY: Rout ledge.

Owen, G. (2009). Architecture, ethics and globalization. New York: Rout ledge.

Vale, L. J. (2008). Architecture, power, and national identity. London: Rout ledge.

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