1.         The doctrine of personal comfort is essential in determining compensation claims. Activities that decrease personal discomfort and increase personal comfort such as smoking, taking short breaks, eating, and using the restroom apply in this doctrine. Such activities are necessary in the course of one’s employment. Employees who are injured in the workplace because of activities related to personal comfort are entitled to receive compensation. Employees traveling to and from work do not generally receive compensation, unless they are injured on the employer’s premises. Traveling employees are entitled to receive compensation if their trips are essential to their work.

 In many cases, dual-purpose trips are considered business trips and employees are entitled to receive compensation. However, employees are not entitled to receive compensation if they go on personal detours while on business trips. Employees do not receive compensation for assault they have suffered outside the course of employment. They can receive compensation so long as they did not begin the assault and provided they were assaulted while in the workplace.

2.         The five phases of emergency management include prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. The purpose of prevention is to avoid the occurrence of a disaster. It includes activities such as inspection, surveillance and immunizations in case of medical emergencies. The preparedness phase is intended to reduce the effect of the disaster by taking certain measures before an incident happens. It includes activities such as training personnel to handle emergency cases and procuring resources that will be needed during the response and recovery phases. The purpose of mitigation is to reduce risks to people and property in times of disasters. It lessens the actual or potential consequences of a disaster. Activities in this phase can be done before, during, or after a disaster happens. The response phase begins when an incident is about to happen, when it is happening, or when it has already happened. The purpose is to save lives, lessen reduce people’s suffering and reduce economic losses. It involves the participation of first responders such as the firefighters, medical personnel, and the police. This phase addresses the direct and immediate effects once a disaster happens.

The recovery phase happens after an incident has already happened. The main purpose of this phase is to try to return things to normalcy. It includes restoring basic services such as power, repairing physical infrastructure, and cleaning the debris. These phases work in coordination. Once a community understands the requirements of each phase, it will be in a better condition to handle the emergencies that happen. The model provides guidelines to be followed, but it does not provide any guarantees. Some incidents can be unexpected, and some communities may not have all the resources required to manage each phase effectively.   

3.         The audit program will include the steps and procedures to take towards realizing the objectives of the audit. The procedures guide the planning and directing of work related to audit. This ensures standardization of the process. An audit program includes the individuals required to perform specific tasks during an audit. Every person has a responsibility and a role to play in order to ensure that audit work is done effectively. People can also work in teams, especially in large organizations. The program will include the results of a preliminary survey on different areas and process in the organization. This determines the needs within the organization, such as resources and system or process change. The program will include evaluation methods, which will assist the management to understand the interpreted results. It will also include an audit schedules and dates for inspections, a structure for reporting the results, evaluation planning, as well as relevant security measures.   

The planning and preparedness phase identifies all the resources in terms of the departments and organizational systems that will be involved in the auditing process. One has to know the organization or area where he is conducting the audit well. He also has to identify any possible threats that may occur during the process. The auditing phase is the most time consuming in the entire process as it involves many activities. During this phase, the auditor collects information that helps him in analyzing the environment and identifying any threats and vulnerabilities. The auditor identifies other risks and concerns by interviewing different people. The third phase is reporting the results obtained from the auditing process. Nowadays people use technology to report and analyze their findings. This has reduced the time taken to prepare the reports.

4.         The occupational safety and health administration expects organizations to comply with the set rules and guidelines in order to ensure safety of their employees. OSHA can perform random unannounced inspections of companies if they have received complaints concerning the level of safety in the organization. Employers have the right to demand identification from the OSHA personnel. They have the right to examine the officers’ credentials, which they can do by calling the nearest OSHA office. They also have the right to contact a legal advisor. They have a right to accompany the officers in the walk through and participate in the investigation.

The OSHA officer begins by stating the reason for his visit. He explains why OSHA selected the employer for inspection. The officers give the employer a copy of the standards which apply to his organization and which concern their reason for coming. If the officers had come because of a complaint they received, then they will give the employer a copy of the letter. A designated employee can accompany the officials during the inspection. The officers inspect the company’s OSHA logs and posters before beginning a walkthrough in the company. The officers hold a closing conference after the walkthrough, and they inform the employer of his right to appeal.

Employers receive citation items detailing their violations of the OSHA rules and standards. OSHA considers factors such as the company size and its history of violations, the seriousness of the violations and the organization’s good faith when it is determining penalties. Employers can contest their citations to the OSHA board. The judges hear the cases and they rule on whether the citation should be dismissed, reduced, or stand.

5.         The data I would collect would depend on the research project I was undertaking. I would collect the data that was relevant to the research topic. I would also focus on collecting valid and credible data for my research. The nature of the data required, in terms of whether it is qualitative or quantitative would determine the data I needed. The type of research would be a crucial determinant on the data I was collecting. This would determine whether I needed primary or secondary data, and it would ultimately determine my data collection methods. Some research projects require literature analysis, in which case I would focus on getting my data from published sources such as books, journals and newspapers. Other research projects require one to conduct experiments, surveys or to observe certain phenomena. Data analysis would depend on the data collected and the type of research being undertaken. Some types of data require the use of quantitative research methods and statistical analysis. Some data would require the use of visible aids such as charts and graphs for simpler analysis.  

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