Shaping Behavior

Shaping Behavior



Shaping Behavior

Question 1

            Various aspects of one’s personality not only arise from the influences in the environment but also from the biological systems. These parts include the brain, central nervous system, and the sensory system. To begin with, the configuration of a human brain influences his or her mode of thinking and the overall temperament. This organ controls the human body through its specialized structures. The cerebral cortex is a section of the brain that influences one’s behavior. The folds in this organ help the brain to accumulate and process a lot of information (Kalat, 2013).

            It has two compartments, the right and left hemispheres. These partitions form the most developed part of the brain and are responsible for behavioral activities. This includes thinking, recognizing, generating, and comprehending verbal communications. The cerebral cortex contains several lobes with each performing a specific task. For instance, the temporal lobe participates in activities regarding memory, sentiments, and hearing abilities. Likewise, the frontal lobe plays a role in decision-making and scheduling (Gregory, 2007). Based on these functions, the brain plays a role in determining one’s behavior.

            For instance, through the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, one is able to make decisions related to behavioral aspects. A person may choose to use violent tactics to solve a problem. Based on this argument, the brain controls bodily and psychosomatic features of an individual. Another organ that shapes the behavior of a human being is the nervous system. This system comprises of multiple neurons, which collects, develop, and convey impulses to other parts of the body. For example, the sympathetic section of the nervous system works closely with the brain to prepare the body to wrestle or run away incase of a crisis (Greenfield, 2000).

Conversely, the parasympathetic subsection encourages one to relax by controlling the heartbeat. These divisions influence one’s behavior by determining one’s reaction in case of a tragedy. For instance, a hot-tempered person may have a more active sympathetic division than the parasympathetic part. Occurrence of a crisis results in communications to the nervous system with the aim of preparing his or her body to fight the enemy. Frequent occurrence of such situations may influence his or her behavior. The individual may become a violent person because of the active sympathetic portion of the nervous system.  

One’s deeds also depend on the sensory system. At times, human beings make decisions based on the intensity of the inner desires and sensory contributions. Internal perceptions include fear, anger, and hunger. In contrast, the external contributions entail vision, seeing, touching, and hearing. Through the process of transduction, one is able to collect the sensory inputs and transform them into realistic signals (Ratey and Galaburda, 2001). For example, the color-sensitive cells of an eye react to dichromatic light and aid a person to recognize different colors on an object. This shapes the behavior of humans by making them diurnal animals.

Question 2

            Cognitive functions are also responsible for determining one’s behavior. This comprises of a person’s capacity to process opinions. Based on these functions, one is able to gain knowledge on new ideas. Nonetheless, aspects such as age and certain illnesses affect the operations of this psychological facet (Latchman, 2006). For example, aged people have difficulties in remembering past events. They also have lesser capacities in terms of processing thoughts. Although cognitive functions are present from birth, certain influences such as education may help in promoting them. In academic institutions, the intelligence quotient of a child expands.

            This is possible by use of examinations, which expands one’s ability to perceive and process new ideas in addition to promoting the memory capacity. This argument explains why people of different age groups behave differently. For example, teenagers have a higher intelligence quotient than senior citizens do. This enables them to adopt new ideas and remember many past events. Based on the cognitive functions, people have different personalities. According to the Jungian theory of cognitive processes, one could be an introvert or an extrovert (Kumai and Yoshiyuki, 2009).

            Introverts focus on internal inputs such as personal ideas, recollections, and emotions. They use present situations to stir up past memories. According to this philosophy, such people are intimate with their feelings and memories. They accumulate information in their minds and mind as opposed to sharing their experiences with the external world. In addition, such people tend to use current events to perceive possible implications in the future. They hardly engage others in their opinions and evaluations but have a preference of offering the ultimate bit of their thoughts (Gazzaniga, 2004).  

            Conversely, extroverts easily connect with others both socially and emotionally. They consider the external world as a crucial party in accomplishing their objectives. Consequently, their judgments and values revolve around the principles accepted by the general population. Furthermore, extroverts take actions based on the circumstances in the external environment. They easily become accustomed to new situations and view unfamiliar territories as worthy opportunities for personal transformation (James, 2010). Unlike introverts, people with this kind of personality are open to frequent alteration of behaviors.

Question 3

            Although each system in the body has an independent function in shaping behaviors, there is a strong interrelation between various systems. The nervous and sensory systems of a human body work closely with the brain to modify or maintain certain activities in a person. For example, sensory elements such as the eyes, nose, skin, or ears collect messages and send them to the brain for interpretation (Myers, 2004). The eye is one of the sensory organs that connect various systems in the body as a way of influencing the ultimate behavior. With the use of the eye, one is able to sight a dangerous animal in the vicinity.

            The neurons in this sensory organ send a message to the cerebral cortex in the brain. The sympathetic division of this sector then sends an interpreted signal to the nervous system by preparing the body to fight the enemy or run away from the tragedy. By use of cognitive functions such as previously acquired knowledge, an individual may employ tactics to curb the tragedy (Blöde, Gall and Flourens, 2000).Through the control function of the brain, the individual is able to utilize various systems to contain the crisis.

            In conclusion, the behaviors of human beings are subject to the interrelations between the brain, nervous system, sensory configuration, and cognitive functions. However, the brain is responsible for controlling these interactions. Neurons promote the connection by linking the sensory and nervous systems to the brain. Based on this argument, it is possible for one to alter a habit by training the mind towards a certain way of thinking. In addition, factors such as age and educational background affect the cognitive functions, which then determine the personality form of a person. For instance, extroverts rely on external environments to make decisions while introverts base their thoughts on personal feelings.


Blöde, K. A., Gall, F. J., & Flourens, P. (2000). Dr. F. J. Gall’s system of the functions of the brain. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press.

Gazzaniga, M. S. (2004). The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Greenfield, S. (2000). The private life of the brain: Emotions, consciousness, and the secret of the self. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Gregory, R. L. (2007). Eye and brain: The psychology of seeing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

James, W. (2010). The principles of psychology. Memphis, Tenn: General Books LLC.

Kalat, J. W. (2013). Biological psychology. Australia [etc.: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Kumai, T., & Yoshiyuki, S. (2009). Another view of the brain system. New York: Nova Biomedical Books.

Latchman, D. S. (2006). Genetic manipulation of the nervous system. London: Academic Press.

Myers, D. G. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

Ratey, J. J., & Galaburda, A. M. (2001). A user’s guide to the brain: Perception, attention, and the four theaters of the brain. New York: Pantheon Books.

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