Social and Cultural Diversity

Social and Cultural Diversity



Social and Cultural Diversity

Question One

            There are various cultural considerations when counseling various groups of people in our society. For immigrants, change is ongoing and rather significant. Leaving one’s country for an unfamiliar place requires abundant faith that the future will be more rewarding in that unfamiliar place. Before beginning the counseling session, a counselor should first identify the circumstances leading to this session. Counselors may need some time to help the client familiarize with their current locale (Morris, 2012). They may also need some time to familiarize the client with the American culture, the important aspects of the country’s legal system, and help them to identify suitable ways of adapting to the new culture without having to abandon their own traditional and personal values.

            In the case of refugees, the counselor will have to consider their background, cultural roots and belief systems. It is important to understand these things in order to comprehend the dynamics of counseling people of different cultures. Being aware of their cultural belief systems provides a framework through which one can understand the importance of social justice and human rights to this population. It is also vital that the counselor understands the life experiences of that refugee. It is also important to consider one’s values and goals as a professional in order to avoid imposing or demanding for rapid adaptation of the refugees at the expense of their own identity and wellbeing (Morris, 2012).

            When counseling undocumented citizens, it is important to consider the language of these citizens, their belief systems and make them aware of their temporary citizenship in the country they currently reside in. It is also vital to be aware that some of these citizens may have encountered some form of discrimination or racism, which may often result in lack of trust in the rest of the members of that community. It is important to consider their cultural differences, such as their education level, family experiences and social economic background. With these factors put into account, the counselor will be able to advice the undocumented citizens in the right way (Morris, 2012).

Question Two

            The Hmong people of California are known for many cultural practices. They are known for being divided into clans whose membership one acquires after birth. A Hmong member cannot marry from the clan in which they belong. In terms of traditional roles, a man is expected to provide for the spiritual and physical welfare of their family. The Hmong people have a decision-making system that involves consultation of clan leaders before making important decisions. The Hmong women have the responsibility of bringing up the children, preparing the food and participating in agricultural labor. Some Hmong people are Christians although many continue to maintain their traditional beliefs in shamanism.

            The Cuban Americans are known for being mostly Roman Catholics owing to their Hispanic origin. Cuban Americans are also famous for various foods such as platanos maduros (sweet plantains), guava paste, lechon asado (pork) and papaya, which are also their staples. Their common staple for lunch is their Cuban sandwich. Cuban Americans often drink colada, a traditional espresso coffee with sugar with a bit of foam on the top called espumita. Cuban Americans also tend to be mostly Republican as compared to many other Hispanic groups living in America. This is the case because many believe that Cuban Americans are distrustful of Democrats.

            The Hispanic Americans in the South West also known as the Latinos are known for their large population on low-income households and low-income jobs. They believe in traditional folk healing by use of aromas, herbs and other rituals to heal the mind, body and spirit. They are alleged for having very little faith in modern medicine. Their culture is also characterized by intricate and one of a kind architecture, cuisines and music. Their art is also unique and is popular to many. Hispanics are also mostly Catholics with a few others being Protestants and Muslims. They are Spanish and English speakers mostly for those who have been in the United States for many years.


Morris, M. (2012). Concise dictionary of social and cultural anthropology. Malden, Mass: Wiley-Blackwell.

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