The main purpose for the establishment of the Quadruple Alliance was to prevent Spain from modifying the stipulations in the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. The countries involved in these efforts were Australia, France, Dutch Republic, and Britain.
The mode of nationalism exhibited in the 19th century was an ideology used in the political and social domains with the main aim of defining the position of the federal government. In such regions as Germany and the United States, the administration esteemed the welfare of the nation-state.
In the 19th century, the adherents of the liberalism ideologies and movement that promoted freedom of various institutions including the media and religion. The general population also acquired the right to possess private properties and other elements within the civil rights category. Free trade and independent elections were also part of this movement, which utilized the theoretical perspectives of John Stuart Mill, Adam Smith and other philosophers.
Conservatism was a famous political ideology used in the 19th century to safeguard the conventional principles and established societal order in addition to limiting the level of fundamental transformations experienced in various facets. Its popularity followed the French Revolution.
The laissez faire economic policy uses the capitalist theories to highlight the detrimental effects of intense government involvement in trade affairs. It states that a typical market economy acquires its optimum efficacy in situations that do not comprise of any form of regulations from the local or federal governments.
Utopianism is a philosophy embraced extensively in the 19th century by various reformers. It was a development of socialism and communism. It indicates that the social possession of the resources of production is possible if the owners voluntarily forward their holdings. This was in line with the popular egalitarianism philosophy, which sought to enhance equality in the society through the fair distribution of monetary resources and other possessions needed by the general population.
Otto von Bismarck is popular for being the first chancellor to rule the German Empire. This also relates to the fact that he was a political leader in the Prussian region of Germany in the late 18th century. Through his political position, this diplomat unified Germany during this period by using practical policies and principles as opposed to moral guidelines.
In On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin discusses the perceived evolution of living creatures over several generations through the process of natural selection. This detailed supposition asserted that the biological diversity in the natural environment is because of the system that favors the fit animals while reducing the chances of survival for the less suited creatures. This ideology instigated dissimilar reactions with various scientists criticizing this theory based on the argument that other factors were responsible for the existence of a species. Conversely, the members of the liberal Anglican Church supported the supposition in line with the assertion that God was responsible for the natural selection process.
During the 1880s, the United States recorded an overwhelming number of immigrants from various geological zones of the world. Most sought opportunities for financial development owing to the high economic growth rate during this era. A large percentage of such individuals were from the Asian continent and Latin America. Moreover, the pilgrims migrated in search of liberty to conduct religious activities while the immigrants from African descent settled in this region against their will because of slavery.
The notion identified and discussed the differences between the roles, personalities, and acceptable positions of women and men in various societal settings. It was popular in the 19th century during the Industrial Revolution. These ideologies defined females as unfit to engage in economic or political activities due to their physical weakness as well as their inability to regard reason over moral values. Accordingly, women had to focus on domestic chores.
Social Darwinism refers to the supposition that states that human beings are subject to the process of natural selection as depicted by Charles Darwin. This theory compares people to plants and other living creatures both at an individual and group level. Analysts such as Herbert Spencer used these assertions to substantiate claims on political conservatism, racial discrimination, and imperialism. Moreover, this theory was practical in debating against radical changes during the 19th century.
In various metropolitan areas, suburbs emerged in the 1850s following the increased population instigated by urbanization as well as the developments in the infrastructural subdivisions. Improvement of the transportation network in these urban regions made this zones a desired alternative for a larger percentage of city dwellers especially those in the middle and upper social strata. For example, the establishment of the electric railways in the United States was a major instigator of this form of dwellings.
The unification of Germany in terms of its political and administrative structures took place in 1871 in France. The princes governing various zones in Germany congregated with the main intention of declaring Emperor Wilhelm as the leader of the German empire following the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War. The initial unification process highlighted the dissimilarities between Austria and the newly established nation of Prussia. These differences included lingual, cultural, social, and religious principles and policies. This made it difficult to acquire significant results in one phase.
The initial stages involved economic merger, which occurred during the industrial revolution. For instance, the developed and extensive railway network made its easy for the inhabitants of all regions to benefit from the resources distributed in different areas. Subsequently, the Zollverin customs union enhanced this economic interdependency since it incorporated policies preferred by a significant portion of states. Additionally, the Austria Prussian War and Franco Prussian War and consequent victory of Prussia propelled smaller states to support their policies in order to benefit politically and economically. The administration led by the Prussian leaders defined the end of the unification process.
In the 19th century, the role of women in the political, professional, and social arenas transformed significantly. To begin with, there were numerous feminist movements aimed at advocating for the civil liberties of women from all racial backgrounds and social classes. This was against the promoted values in the patriarchal society regarding the role of the females as homemakers. In Britain, the period of industrial revolution and the augmented advocacy for women’s rights increased the number of females in the working class to 80 %.
Nonetheless, the working conditions in factories were not conducive for women, aspect that made it difficult for most them to acquire financial autonomy. This heightened the actions of the feminist movement with its participants being from all racial backgrounds and social classes. Some male advocates such as John Stuart Mill were also vocal in the promotion of women’s civil liberties. This led to a significant number of females breaking the glass ceiling. For example, Elizabeth Anderson became the first female doctor in Britain during this period.